what is destination and by it information technology in education

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what is destination and by

it information technology in education

 

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 A  number of goals for use of computer technology in education have emerged  and  evolved  on  analysis of  the  use  of  computer  I n education for instruction and self-paced learning particularly in U.S.A. and European  schools. The information  highway  has developed  enormously and influenced the education sector alike business, marketing, defenses and industry. This chapter has focused on thirteen goals which are divided into Four major categories :

  1. Information Technology and Student’s Destination
  2. Independent Life-long Learning
  3. Capacity Building
  4. Assessment and Evaluation

 (A). Information Technology and Student’s Destination  

The four goals listed in this section serve to define functional literacy in information technology and provide guidelines to 10+2 curriculum developers. The combined emphasis on both basic skills as well as on higher-order problem-solving skills has to be given.

Goal-1: Basic Level (functional) Literacy in Information Technology

All the students shall be functionally literate in information technology. A basic level of literacy in information technology must be achieved by the end of the VIII’th grade. It consists of relatively broad general knowledge about applications of computers and other information technologies, implications of these in the up liftmen of society and education, how these technologies work and what are their capabilities and limitations. The major six steps which  l ie under the information technology functional literacy mission are :

(i) General knowledge : Students shall have oral and reading knowledge of computers and other information technologies, and their effects on our society. More specifically, each discipline that students study shall include in the syllabus about how electronic aids to information processing and problem solving can be used effectively in that particular discipline.

(ii) Procedural thinking: Students shall have knowledge of the concept of effective procedures, representation of procedures, roles of procedures in problem solving, and a broad range of examples of the types of procedures that computers can execute.

(iii) Skills to use generic tools : Students shall have basic skills to use word processing, database, computer graphics, spreadsheet, and other general purpose multidisciplinary application packages .This also includes basic skills in using menu-driven hypermedia software to create hypennedia materials as an aid to communication .

(iv) Skills touse telecommunications : Students shall have basic skills in using telecommunications to communicate with people and to make effective use of computerized databases and other sources of information located both locally (i.e. in a school community library) and throughout the world. They shall have the knowledge and skills to make effective use of the Internet and the World Wide Web.

(v) Knowledge of hardware : Students shall have basic knowledge of the electronic and other hardware components and how they function sufficient to “display the magic”. The students must understand the functionality of hardware and must be able to detect and correct common difficulties, such as various components not being plugged in or not receiving power, various components not being connected, and printer being out of paper.

(vi) Knowledge of computer input : Students shall have basic skills in use of a variety of computer input devices, including keyboard and mouse, scanner, digital camera, touch screen, and probes used to input scientific data. They shall have introductory knowledge of voice input and pen-based systems.

Goal-2 : Intermediate Level Literacy in Information Technology

This includes deeper knowledge of computers and other information technology as they relate to the specific disciplines and topics. In brief, the following skills must be acquired by a student at the end of intermediate (10+2) level.

(i) Skill in creating hypermedia documents :This includes the ability to design effective communication in both print and electronic media, as well as experience in desktop publication and desktop presentation.

(ii) Skill in use of information technology as an aid to problem solving in the various high school disciplines :A student taking advanced mathematics would use computer modeling. A commercial art student would create and manipulate graphics electronically. Industrial arts classes would work with computer-aided design. Science courses would employ microcomputer-based laboratories and computer simulations.

(iii) Skill in computer-mediated, collaborative, interdisciplinary problem solving :This includes students gaining the types of communication skills (brain-storming, active listening, consensus-building, etc.) needed for working in a problem-solving environment.

Goal-3 : Computer-as-Tool in Curriculum Content

The use of computer applications as a general-purpose aid to problem solving using word processor, database, graphics, spreadsheet, and other general purpose application packages shall be integrated throughout the curriculum content. The intent here is that students shall receive specific instruction in each of these tools, probably before completing elementary school. Middle school, junior high school, and high school curriculum shall assume a working knowledge of these tools and shall include specific additional instruction in their use. In higher education these students are expected to make regular use of these tools, and teachers shall structure their curriculum and assignments to take advantage of and to add to student knowledge of computer-as-tool.

Goal-4 : Information Technology Courses

At +2 level following more advanced tasks of computer-relate coursework shall be provided.

(i)   Computer-related coursework : Computer-related  coursework aims at preparing a student who will seek employment immediately after completing high school studies. For example, a business curriculum shall prepare students for entry-level employment in a computerized business office, a graphic arts curriculum should prepare students to be productive in use of a wide range of computer-based graphic arts facilities. Increasingly, some of these courses are part of the technical preparation programme of study in a school.

(ii) Computer Science Coursework : Computer science coursework including problem solving in a computer programming environment is designed to prepare students with said background to the discipline of computer science.

(B). Independent Lifelong Learning

The three goals listed i n this section gives focus on computer technology as an aid to general learning.

Goal-5 : Distance Education

Telecommunications, and other electronic aids are the foundation for an increasingly sophisticated distance education system. Education shall use distance mode, when it is pedagogically and economically sound, to enhance students knowledge and opportunities for learning.

In many cases distance education may be combined with computer-assisted learning (CAL, see Goal 6) and carried out through the WWW (see step I (v)). In both cases students are given an increased range of l earning opportunities. The education may take place at a time and place that is convenient for the student, rather than being dictated by the traditional course schedule of a school. The choice and level of topics may be controlled by the student, instead of the teacher as in our existing educational system.

Goal-6 : Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL)

I n education computer-assisted learning shall be useful when i t is pedagogically and economically sound, to increase student’s learning and To broaden the range of learning opportunities. CAL includes drill and practice. Tutorials, simulations, and micro-worlds. It also includes computer­ ma instruction (given below). These CAL systems may make use of realities technology.  

(i)  All students shall learn both general ideas of how computers can used as an aid to learning and specific ideas on how CAL can be useful “‘ They shall become experienced users of CAL systems. The intent on learner, being responsible for one’s own learning, and being a ‘” learner. Students have their own learning styles, so different types CAL will fit different students to greater or lesser degrees.

 (ii)  In situations in which CAL is a cost-effective and educationally sound aid to student’s learning or to overall learning opportunities, it will be an integral component of the educational system. For example, CAL can some students to learn certain types of material significantly faster  the conventional instructional techniques . Such students should have opportunity to use CAL as an aid to learning. In addition, CAL can be to provide educational opportunities that might not otherwise be ail able. A school can expand its curriculum by delivering some courses using CAL.

 (iii)  Computer-Managed Instruction (CM!) includes record keeping, ostictesting, and prescriptive guides as to what to study and in which.CMI software is useful to both students and teachers. Students should e the opportunity to track their own progress in school and to see the ale for the work they are doing. CMI can reduce the work load when staff and students shall have this aid. Thus, CMI is cost-effective and instructionally sound.

Goal-7: Students with Special Needs

Computer-related technology shall be routinely and readily available to nets with special needs when research and practice have demonstrated effectiveness. Computer-based adaptive technologies shall be made amiable to students who need such technology for communication with er people and/or for communication with a computer. When CAL has unstated effectiveness in helping students with particular special learning needs, it shall be made available to the students. All staff (teaching & technical) who work with students with special needs shall have the knowledge and experience needed to work with these students who are making use of computer-based adaptive technologies, CAL, and computer tools.

(C). Educational System Goals: Capacity Building

The other three goals in this section focus on permanent changes in our educational system that is needed to support achievement of Goals I to 7, discussed above.

Goal-8: Staff Development and Support

The professional education staff shall have computers to increase their productivity, to make it easier for them to accomplish their duties, and to support their computer-oriented growth. Every policy maker school administrator shall provide for staff development to accomplish Goals I to 7, including time for practice, planning, and peer collaboration. Teacher training institutions shall adequately prepare their teacher trainees so that, they can function effectively in a school environment to achieve the set goals 1 to 7.

This means, all teachers shall be provided facilities with access to computerized data banks, word processors, presentation graphics software, computerized grade books, telecommunications packages, and other application software that teachers have found useful in  increasing their productivity and job satisfaction. Computer-based communication is becoming an avenue-for teachers to share professional information. Every teacher should have telecommunications and desktop presentation, facilities in the classroom. Computer-managed instruction (CMI) can help the teacher by providing diagnostic testing and prescription access to item data banks, and aids in preparing individual education plans.

Goal-9: Facilities

The policy makers and school administrators shall integrate into its ongoing budget adequate resources to provide the hardware, software, curriculum development, curriculum materials, staff development, personnel, and time needed to accomplish the goals listed above.

Goal :10  Long-Term Commitment

the establishment of appropriate policies, procedures, and practices. Computing shall be integrated into job descriptions, ongoing hv-tc. planning, staff development,  work assignments, and so on. The errs and school administrators shall fully accept that “computers stay- as an integral part of an ‘Information Age’ school system. Unity-the entire formal and Informal educational system-shall and work to achieve the goals listed above.

(D). Assessment and Evaluation

The last 3 goals listed in this section focus on doing strategic planning and obtaining information about the effectiveness of programs for information neology that  are  implemented  by  teachers,  schools, and  school stators.

Goal-11: Strategic Plan

Policy, makers and school administrators shall have a long-range strategic an for information technology in education. The plans shall include ongoing or native evaluation and yearly updating.

Goal-12: Student Assessment

Authentic and performance-based  assessment shall be used to assess an learning of information technology. For example when students are being taught to communicate and to solve problems in an environment at includes routine use of the computer as a tool , they shall be assessed in me same environment.

Goal-13: Formative, Summative, and Residual Impact Evaluation

Implementation plans for information technology shall be evaluated on the basis of formative, summative, and residual impact of evaluation techniques. Formative evaluation provides information for mid-program corrections. It is conducted as programmes are being implemented. Summative evaluation provides information about the results of a programme after it has even completed, such as a particular staff development programme, a particular programme of loaning computers to students for use at home, and so on. Residual impact evaluation looks at programmes in retrospect, perhaps a year or more after a programme has ended. For example, a year after teachers participated in an in-service programme designed to help them learn to use some specific pieces of software in their classrooms, are they actually using this software or somewhat similar software ?

Student’s Destination and Teacher Education

In recent years, a great deal of thought has gone into determining the computer knowledge and skills that teachers need to have. It is clear that a two-tier approach is needed in teacher education. One is aimed at preserves education. Newly graduated teachers must have the knowledge and skills to help our schools to achieve the student Goals 1 to 7 listed in the previous section. The second is in-service education. Every school needs to have an in-service programme that helps all teachers gain the knowledge and skills to achieve goals set for the students.

For both preserves and in-service teachers, the goals listed below are minimal. They provide a starting point, but they are far from the levels of competencies that teachers need if information technology is going to have a significant positive impact on our educational system.

All can ideates seeking initial endorsements i n teacher preparation programmes and particularly programmes in educational computing and technology require foundations in :

  • Basic Technology Operations and Concepts.
  • Professional and Personal Use of Technology and
  • Application of Technology in Instruction.

Basic Technology Operations and Concepts

Candidates will use computer operating systems and user interfaces to run programmes; access, generate and manipulate data; and to publish results. They will also evaluate performance of hardware and software components of computer systems and apply basic troubleshooting strategies as needed. The institute of Advanced Studies in Education, M.J.P., Rohilkhand ersatz has established model programmers in this direction that others low. The Institute has B.Ed., (Educational Computing) and Applied Ed. it hone compulsory paper on Applications of Computer in Education, .in which trainees develop CAI and multimedia packages in various I subjects for normal children as well as children with special needs. A  plied M.Ed. and M.Ed . (Special Education) students develop CAI. Multimedia. According to the feedback from students, it is found that CAI packages have been proven very successful and effective in using education to all types of students through computer, as shown below i n Box 1, 2 and 3 respectively.

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Personal and Professional Use of Technology

Candidates will apply tools for enhancing their own professional growth and productivity. They will use technology in communicating, collaborating, conducting research and solving problems. In addition, they will plan and participate in activities that encourage lifelong learning and will promote equitable, ethical, and legal use of computer and technology resources.

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Application of Technology in Instruction

Candidates will apply computers and related technologies to support instruction in their grade level and subject areas. They must plan and deliver instructional units that integrate a variety of software, applications, and learning tools. Lessons developed must reflect effective grouping and assessment strategies for diverse populations.

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Conclusions and Recommendations

Thus, this chapter covers a number of potential uses of information technology in education. It contains thirteen goals, with other educational goals, these can be considered to be forecasts. Some schools, particularly privately managed reputed English Medium Institutions are making good efforts and progress on achieving these goals. Overall nationwide progress has been modest. Leaders in the field of information technology in education are committed to their achievements. Thus, these goals are already shaping the future. As more and more educators work to achieve these goals, these goals will increasingly shape the future of education.

Think about what it will mean as distance education and computer-assisted learning have become routine parts of our educational system. Each provides learning opportunities at a time and place to better fit the convenience of the learner. Each provides access to a far broader range of courses than even the largest school can make available. Students will be empowered by steadily increasing choice of curriculum content, mode of instructional delivery, time, and place. The current educational system will face steadily increasing competition from distance education and CAL.

A modest number of parents and educators can take the lead in having a school achieving the goals listed in this paper. The parents, educators, and media people working together can produce a significant change in a local education system which ultimately will be responsible to bring out the nationwide changes. For the educational institutions, now there is no option but to cope with these changes for their survival.

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