Teaching Online Contents
- 1 The Effectiveness of Multimedia Programme in
- 2 Mathematics
- 3 (ICT based Educational Researches )
The Effectiveness of Multimedia Programme in
(ICT based Educational Researches )
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Today, the excessive verbalism in the conventional method of teaching U has lost its efficacy and student’s interest in subject. The advancement in instructional and communication technology has strongly influenced the field of education. Today, teaching – learning methods are being influenced by a number of new media such as Radio, TV, Video, Computer, Hypertext, Multimedia, etc. Among all other media, Computer has tremendous potential to enrich the teaching – learning process. The extent to which the dynamic interaction between the student and instructional programmed is possible through computer, is not possibly by any other media. The large storage capacity, fast operating speed and interactive graphics are the other sign if I can’t features of computer which promises the useful teaching applications. The computer can be used to present the learning material before the student, receive his response, analyze the response and take appropriate action to offer remedial information, cross questioning or help in analyzing the problems, etc. through computer assisted instruction (CAI). Computer assisted instruction (CAI), appeared in Indian schools long back in 1960s. The first demonstration of CAI was accomplished by Rath et. al., ( 1 959) at the Thomas J. Watson Research Centre of IBM i n New York. Studies conducted in India on science students by various researchers e.g. Ravindranath (1982); Mohan (1987); Chandra (1987); Natchimuthu (1989); Agarwal (1994); Anandan (1997) had concluded that CAI enhanced the achievement of the students. The effectiveness of CAI for young children was examined by various researchers e.g. Lewis ( 1978); Swigger and Compbell (1981); Vostein (1982); Spencer & Baskin (1983); Casey (1984), etc. and they had reported different findings. Most of these studies have focused their attention on the area of reading readiness and found CAI as an effective method of teaching. Various other researchers had also arrived to the same conclusion that students who used CAI scored significantly higher than their control group counterparts e.g. Tailor ( 1980); Abraham & Gandma (1984); Delton (1985); Jeyamani (1991); Ahluwalia (1991); Rose ( 1992); Singh (1992); John (1997); Sah (1998); Farid (1998); Srivastava (2000); Gupta (2001) and Agarwal (2001).
Computerization was promoted through the “National Policy of Education, 1986″ which emphasized the role of computers in enhancing the efficiency of the teaching-learning process in making children more creative and in providing them with an individual learning environment. The measures taken by the Government reveal that it tried to make use of the advantages of CAI found in different studies conducted abroad and in India. The present study aimed to measure the effectiveness of CAI in the existing conditions over the conventional method of instructions in our country with specific reference to mathematics learning.
Objectives of the Study
The major objectives of the study were:
- To develop and validate a multimedia package in mathematics for IX standard students;
- To construct and validate a criterion test in mathematics for IX standard students;
- To find out the relative effectiveness of the two methods of teaching; viz, teaching through CAI and teaching through traditional method of mathematics to the students of IX class;
- To study the effectiveness of CAl method on the basis of sex and intelligence of class IX students;
- There is no significant difference in the achievement of students in mathematics taught through CAI or traditional method.
- Students’ sex or level of intelligence does not affect thei r achievement in mathematics.
To collect the data from sample subjects following tests were used –
- Group Test of intelligence (Tandon)
- Multi Media Package for Computer Assisted Instruction developed by Shah & Naushad.
- Mathematics Achievement Test (Shah & Naushad)
Mean, S.D., Correlation and ‘t’ test were used to analyse the data.
The study was of experimental nature with pretest-posttest equivalent groups design. Using random sampling method, a group of 71 students of class IX were selected and further randomly divided into two groups such as experimental and control gorup with 36 and 35 students respectively. Both groups were administered intelligence scale namely ‘Group Test of Intelligence’ developed by Tandon and Mathematics Achievement Test which was developed and standardized by the researchers. The mean differences between the control and experimental groups on intelligence (experimental group mean = 21.51 , SD = 4.09; Contr0l gourd mean = 23.23, SD = 3.94 and t = I.91 ) as well as on mean achievement scores (pretest) i n mathematics (experimental group mean = 13.69, S.D. = 3.52, control group mean = 13.24, S.D. = 3.49 and t = 1 .02) were found insignificant. Thus, both experimental and control groups were equal and matched with each other as per the requirements of the experimental study.
The achievement test in mathematics had 28 items distributed over three dimensions, namely – knowledge, comprehension ‘and applications. The reliability coefficient of th is scale was 0.76 (Split-half method), which is significantly high.
The multimedia package developed for the study comprised of two phases. In the first phase programmed learning material (PLM) in Mathematics for IXth standard students was developed and then in second phase was converted into the developed PLM into CAI, using multimedia. The Authoring system, Authorware 5.0 was selected for developing the CAI Multi Media package. The experimental group was taught with multimedia package and the control group with traditional method of teaching mathematics .After a treatment period of 3 months, post-test was taken by administrating the criterion test on ‘mathematical achievement’. The data were analyzed with the help of ‘t’ test.
Data Analysis and Discussions
The major objective of the study was to find out the effectiveness of two methods of teaching on the achievement of mathematics between the comparable groups and also to see whether intelligence and sex have influence on the achievement or not.
Table – 1 reveals that those boys, who were instructed through CAI method, achieved significantly higher mean scores on post-test than the boys, who were taught through traditional method (t = 3.75, p = 0.01 ). Similarly, in case of girls, those instructed through CAI method, achieved significantly higher mean scores on post-test than the girls, taught through traditional method (t = 4.12, p = 0.01 ). These findings conclude that irrespective of sex variable, both for boys and girls, the CAI method proved very effective in teaching mathematics as the instruction through computer proved to be more effective in comparison than the traditional method of teaching which is usually being carried out in the traditional classrooms.
Further, when intelligence variable was controlled, there was signif}cant difference in the mean scores, obtained by the control and experimental groups belonging to low intelligence category (Control Group Mean = 19.65, SD = 4.35, Experimental Group Mean = 24.67, SD = 3.68 and t = 2.93, p=.O I ) on post test and same obse50 rations were made on their counterparts having high level of intelligence (Control group mean = 24.30, SD = 3.79; Experimental group mean = 25.90, SD = 4.26 and t = 4.02). Hence, intelligence was not found as an influencing variable deciding the achievement of students in mathematics. The above result reveals that the achievements of the students of experimental gro11p were superior to the control group.
Further neither sex nor intelligence variable, was controlled or in other words student of both the sexes and both the groups of intelligence (Low and High) were merged together in experimental and control groups. The comparison of post-test mean scores of these two groups, yielded a highly significant variation (t = 3.48, p = 0.01). Students of experimental group taught through CAI method, had achieved higher mean scores in comparison to the students of control group, and taught through traditional method. Consistent findings have also been reported by several researchers, such as, Fisher (1983), Merton (1983), Pandey (1991). Thus, it can be concluded that Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) method is an effective method that can be used in our educational institutions to teach mathematics to all type of students irrespective of their specific characteristics, to excel their learning.
Table – 2 reveals a significant difference between the mean achievement scores of boys and girls on post-test (t=2.92, p=.01 ). The mean score of girls was found to be higher than the boys. It was interesting to observe that girls were found more enthusiastic to learn through computer than the boys. And, perhaps, girls might have given more attention to the material presented through CAI than their male counterparts. This may have resulted in higher achievement among girl students than boys. Further, a look on Table-2, shows that the difference between mean scores obtained by students with low and high level intelligence, was also found significant (t = 4.52, p = 0.0 I ) and higher intelligent group performed better.
This is a global phenomenon that students with higher intelligence perform better and the same findings was obtained with CAI in this study. It may be perhaps because high intelligent students can have better interaction with the computer resulting in better achievement in mathematics.
- CAI method had shown more significant and positive effect on the achievement in mathematics for class IXth students as compared to their counterparts studying through traditional method.
- Significant differences favoring CAI were even after controlling the intelligence or sex of the students.
- It was interesting that the achievement of girls in Mathematics was better in comparison with the boys, when they were taught through CAI method.
In brief, the above findings conclude that to provide the knowledge of the mathematics to class IX students, CAI method was found to be more effective than the traditional method. Further, CAI produced significant positive difference in the achievement on the knowledge, comprehension and application aspects. This concludes that CAI can be confidently used as an effective method of teaching for knowledge, comprehension and application aspects of mathematics to the higher secondary students. As the availability of the computer in school is increasing, the CAI method can be a good alternative to the traditional method .The government can prepare and distribute the validated software (Multimedia Package) based on curriculum to the schools to achieve the maximum return on the investment made by the govt. on educational software’s.