Teaching Online Contents
Reading is of two types
(a) Silent Reading
(b) Loud Reading
(a) Silent Reading-In silent reading there is no movement of the lips or the tongue. In loud reading, the students are to read aloud so that their voice is audible. There is a great difference between these two kinds of readings. There is also a great difference in the teaching of the correct forms of these types of reading. In silent reading, the students should be taught to read in such a way that there is no movement of their lips and tongue. Bu t there should be full concentration on the part of the students. Their thoughts should not wonder aimlessly while they are reading silently. Moreover, they should not use their finger between the lines and move to forward along with the forward movement of the reading.
Aims of silent reading
(i) According to ‘Rybum’-‘The aims of silent reading are pleasure and profit; to be able to read for interest and to get information.’
(ii) To expanded student’ vocabulary.
(iii) To enable students to read without making sounds and moving lips, so that they may not disturb others.
(iv) To make students read with comprehension.
(v) To enable students to read with speed, ease and fluency.
(i) Only those passages should be read which can be understood and appreciated by students. To begin with simple stories is move advantageous.
(ii) The duration of silent reading should differ according to the nature of the matter and the standard of the class.
(iii) The weak students should be paid more attention. The paragraph for reading should not be long.
(v) Necessary instructions must be given before silent reading.
(vi) The teacher should be particular about giving students task of wide reading by gradually selecting fresh and unseen paragraph.
(i) It saves time because it is quick.
(ii) It saves energy also.
(iii) It initiates self-education and deep study.
(iv) It develops the ability to read with interest.
According to ‘Ryborn’ “It enables attention and energy to be concentrated on meaning and so saves a division of attention resulting in a .greater assimilation of information.’
(i) It is not advantageous for beginners.
(ii) It is also uninteresting.
(iii) Sometimes students cannot understand some parts of the passage, but they cannot take the help of teachers.
(iv) The mistakes done by students during silent reading can not be corrected.
(v) It does not teach correct pronunciation.
(vi) It cannot be checked if students are really reading.
Loud Reading:– While teaching loud reading, the teacher should lay emphasis on correct pronunciation. He should correct the wrong pronunciatition immediately y and give a dr ill of correct pronunciation to the whole class. There is a controversy on the point whether silent reading-should be followed by loud reading or vice versa. Marrison is of the opinion that loud reading by students should be followed by silent reading, just the opposite of what is practised generally in our schools.
Teaching intensive and extensive reading-Intensive reading is quite different from extensive reading. In intensive reading, the aim is to assimilate the language and to know the subject matter, But in extensive reading, the sole aim is to know the subject matter. No doubt, some assimilation of language is done in extensive reading also, but it is conscious as in intensive reading. It only concentrates upon the main ideas of the context.
Intensive reading is generally oral and is followed by silent reading. Extensive reading on the other hand, is mainly silent reading. As it is silent, the speed of reading in extensive reading is faster than the speed in intensive reading.
Extensive reading is also known as supplementary reading. It is a very important aspect of reading, but it is generally neglected in our schools. The .students should be encouraged to do extensive reading at school, at home and in the school library. They should read books other than their text books.
To teach a lesson in extensive reading, the teacher may give a brief introduction of the lesson to be read. Then, he may write some comprehension questions on the black-board, so that the students may aver some directions before them while they are making the silent reading. ·
Extensive reading can be continued at home by the students in the light of the comprehension questions. In the school the reading will be limited. Hence, the students should be encouraged to do extensive reading at home.
Aims of intensive reading
(i) To increase students active vocabulary.
(ii) To concentrate upon language.
(iii) To enable students to speak English correctly.
(iv) To enable them to use English language without fear and to develop in them the habit of thinking in English.
(v) To improve and extend their knowledge and command over English.
(vi) To foster in them a taste for study of English.
Aims of extensive reading
According to Thompson and Wyatt, there are four aims of rapid reading-
(i) Intellectual-To train the pupils to understand the subject matter quickly.
(ii) Library-To develop in them a taste for reading books so that they may form cultural contacts with great writers and people.
(iii) Linguistic-To enable them to enhance their vocabulary and usage.
(iv) Re-creational-To inaccurate in them the habit of reading for pleasure and profit. Reading is a good means of entertainment and information.
(i) It paves the path for individual method of study and self education.
(ii) It keeps the whole class busy and active.
(iii) It increases vocabulary.
(iv) It helps in assimilation of ideas.
(v) It has high ‘transfer of learning’ value, since, it prepares students for library reading.
Development of reading habit-Reading is one of the most useful skills in learning a foreign language. According to Mr. Gray, reading is a form of good experience. So, the students should be encouraged to develop good reading habits. These habits promote self study, which is the real way of obtaining rich experience of life. Reading is an activity which is not confined to school life alone. This habit should become a part of a student the whole life. Good reading habit makes a student a lover of reading. He continues this habit throughout his life and reads regularly both for pleasure and profit.
It has been observed that the school going children do not develop the habit of reading. The fear of examination stands in the way of developing such a habit by the students. Moreover, most of our teachers do not take pains to develop reading habits among the students. Some of the suggestions given below may help in developing reading habits among the students.
(i) The teacher himself should be a lover of books. Only then, he can inspire the students to develop reading habits. He should talk about new and good books in the class, whenever there is an opportunity to do so. He should also recommend some good library books to them, keeping in view their age and ability.
(ii) A good school library and class library can go a long way in developing reading habits among the students. There should also be a provision for a period of library reading in the time table of the school.
(iii) The class bulletin board, if put to proper use; can help much in promoting reading habits among the students.
(iv) The school can organize book exhibitions periodically in order to promote interest in reading in the students.
These exhibitions can also be organized by a group of schools collectively.
(v) A reading club can be organized in the school to develop reading interest among the students.
(vi) Surveys of student, reading interests can help much in developing reading interests among the students.
In short, all efforts should be made to develop reading habits among the students. We should create in them a real love for books. But we should also see that they read good books and not cheap and sub-standard books, which may have a bad effect on their moral character.