teaching online : ict in new innovations in technology

ict in education, distance education, new innovations in technology, information technology in education, types of educational technology, teaching online, what is robot

teaching online : ict in new innovations in technology

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Advances in  information  offer a new  global  resource  that provides potential for far-reaching social changes. Futurists presume that computing education and communication technology will have an intense impact on political, social and economic aspects of the society which would be far greater than the impact of the industrial revolution. We are moving across the threshold into new high techs are, an era of a world­ intonation-based society.

In developed countries, recent years have seen a gradual disappearance of the teaching machine and radio. This has happened particularly, after the introduction of micro computer in 1980s. I n the middle and late 1950s, specifically, after the launching of the Sputnik, there was an urgent demand for production and delivery of television courses. Subsequently 242 channels for the exclusive use of television in education were formulated i n U.S.A. and the Federal Communications Commission, awarded to each state one or more channels (Wittich & Schuller, 1979). It is interesting to note that university presidents, deans, professors, state and city school superintendents, public officials, teachers and various other educators (Saettler 1968) promoted the idea of educating people in school and at home through television. But till the middle of 1960s, only 100 out of 242 educational channels were i n operation. Instructional Television was not accepted by the teachers as an effective media and often educators and instructional technologists were blamed for this fail are, that they produced uninteresting and instructionally ineffective programmes. With the introduction of computers in 1960s, gradually the interests were diverted. Through computers, individualized drill and practice, direct information transfer with learning check points, immediate feedback and remedial instruction was possible. Further, in 1980, when micro computer was introduced in education, interests of the society strengthened in using more sophisticated technology for instructional purposes. Recently, attention is being focused on the use of laser discs and holography to bring remote and three dimensional imagery into the schools. At present, the span of computer managed programmers is from very simple computer managed instruction to highly sophisticated programmed.

Here, an attempt has been made to explore the recent innovations having significant role and future potential in teaching process. These are Computer Managed Instruction; Tele-Conferencing Videotext and Teletext; Interactive Video-Disc; Robot Tech no l ogy; Spatial Visual  Computers; Information Technologies, Workstation and Networking; Computer-Based Instruction, etc.

Computer Managed Instruction

Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), has over a forty five years history, dating back to the early 1960s. Introduction of micro computer in 1980s had generated a new enthusiasm in the society to use it for instructional purposes.

Definition: Burke ( 1982) has defined CMI as “the systematic control of instruction by the computer. It is characterized by testing, diagnosis, learning prescriptions and through record keeping.” Leib (1982) has given a more general definition- “CM! Includes al l applications of the computer that aids the instructor i n instructional management without actually doing the teaching.” Thus, computer assisted testing, classroom management programmers, including electronic grade books, may be classified as computer managed instruction programmers.

Uses: Various computer scientists and educationists (Budoff et al; 1984, Milner 1983, Patterson & Patterson 198;. Riedesel & Clements 1985; Willis et al. 1983), identified following major benefits with computer managed instruction programmes :

  • Reducing Clerical Task:  It has  been  observed  that  more than 50% time teachers spend on preparing, administering and evaluating/ scoring tests, keeping records and filling out the progress reports, etc., spent on clerical functions can be reduced appreciably with the use of CMI programmed.
  • Enhancing the Testing/Instructional Process: Strength of the computer is its ability to generate, administer, score and provide data for analysis-quickly, reliably and uniformly. The use of CMI reduces the time devoted to these functions. Besides, it provides immediate feedback on student mastery or the prescription of teaching-learning activities to make corrections in their deficiencies.
  • Facilitating Communication: The reports generated through computers communicate uniform information to teachers, students, administrators and parents. This procedure helps to develop an environment for open communication on the issues affecting student learning and the quality of the instructional programme.
  • Promoting Large Scale Individualization: The computerized method has proven to be a better choice in handling a massive amount of information related to the individualized curriculum from a group-paced instructional approach to a self-paced one.
  • Enhancing Student Programmed Evaluation: The evaluation function ofa CMI programmed enables teachers and administrators to:

(i) make diagnostic, formative and summative judgments  about students;

(ii) Make a comparison of students’ standardized test performance with national norms;

(iii) determine what teaching strategies and resources  are working successfully;

(iv) Reduce teaching error rates; and

(v) Redesign and improve the different steps of the educational process.

Positive Attitudes: On the basis of experimental studies, it is clear that the students prefer the CM! Programmed because it provides them an opportunity to interact with a computer and to obtain positive reinforcement for their efforts. Similarly, teachers not only support CM! But feel it is superior than other instructional technologies.


in the late 1950s, the satellite communication systems motivated some scientists at Bell Laboratories of U.S.A., to develop a non-geosynchronous satellite communication system. The communication satellite (Telestar- 1), was launched into a geosynchronous orbit in July 1962. After that, several satellites were launched into the space by other countries too. Now electronic meetings, convened across a nation or around the world, have become easier as well as cost effective. Every day thousands of tele­ conferences are being held in different sites and millions of interested persons share information via telephone lines, eliminating the need to travel not only long distances but even shortest ones.

Initially, tele-conferencing was applied to business, medicine, news, military, agriculture, and official and administrative purposes. Now it has expanded the horizons of education too. This technology is currently being applied to solve the problems of rural education. The results are quite satisfactory. Recently, attempts have been made to use tele-conferencing as a possible way of delivering instructional materials to students in a cost effective way. The new technology presents information in a concrete fashion and provides students with more accurate verbal and visual facsimiles. The speed and immediacy of information can be comprehended without special efforts or skills.

Teleconferencing has been implemented in learning environment for only a short while. However, the current applications of teleconferencing-distance education, enhancing the quality of teaching-learning process, delivering information to remote rural schools etc., have already enhanced i ts use for educational purposes. Numerous studies (Barnhardt, 1984; Burmester, 1984; Cohnell & Smyer, 1984; Haile & Richards, 1984; etc.), have proved the validity of tele-conferencing in teaching-learning process.

Types of Teleconferencing

Tele-conferencing can occur between two or several different locations. Any one of the following formats can be used I n teleconferencing :

  • One-Way Video and Two-Way Audio: It is the most common format. Video and audio signals originate from a television station or a mobile unit. The signals are transmitted into a communication satellite’s orbit and then down-linked to an earth station (satellite dish), and to the teleconferencing participants. The participants are encouraged to interact through a direct telephone line. The audience can be heard but not seen at the point of origin.
  • Two-Way Audio/Two-Way Video: This format is more expensive and mostly used by the television networks. In this format, participants of different locations can see and hear to one another. The audio and video signals from both the locations are transmitted via satellite and received by satellite dish.
  • Two-Way Audio: This is the most inexpensive format of teleconferencing. I n this format intonation is received via phone lines and amplified through a speaker phone. The responses are sent from microphone ia phone. This format is effective when the information to be delivered that is not visual in nature.
  • Picture Phone Tele-Conference: This format is slightly different from two-way audio-video tel-conferencing. In this format still images are sent via satellites, micro waves, land lines or other means while audio signals are sent through phone lines.
  • Computer Conferencing: At present it is becoming more popular as it has the potential to be one enhancing productivity the most. It consists of communication terminals which are used by participants to obtain to access a central computer. The central computer stores text entered by the sender and towards the information to the recipients, when they call the computer.

ict in education, distance education, new innovations in technology, information technology in education, types of educational technology, teaching online, what is robot

Tele-conferencing may be applied successfully both for instructional/ professional developments. Few of them are discussed here, in brief.

1.Instructional Applications

(i) Teaching some subjects (e.g. Math’s, Science, Computers, etc.,) in remote areas where experts are not available.

(ii) Teaching the same subject matter at the same time in different campuses where simultaneous instruction is desired.

(iii) Teaching overcrowded classrooms where demonstration is critical.

(iv) Teaching new technology where access to information is limited and costly.

(v) Teaching a subject in a big geographical area where standard of instruction is crucial.

(vi) Teaching subject matter for adult education programmes where attendance in the class room is a problem.                ·

(vii) Teaching materials in multi-sites where the participants’ interaction is desired.

(viii) Watching special academic events, such as speeches, discussions, etc.

(ix) Listening to keynote speakers who cannot travel extensively and with whom interaction is very much desired.

2. in-service Training/Professional Development  Applications

(i) Updating the information.

(ii) Immediacy of information.

(iii) Renewing credentials.

(iv) Inexpensive training for a large group.

(v) Watching different models of teaching at different sites.

Teleconferencing is not intended to replace the classroom teacher, but rather to extend/supplement the classroom teaching beyond its immediate walls. Teleconferencing has great potential in increasing the effectiveness of instruction. The telecommunication revolution offers different channels of instructional communications, from telephone, microwave and satellite to computer. Teleconferencing cans be cost effective and time saving. In addition to these, teleconferencing enhances the effectiveness in teachers in-service programmers.

Video-Text and Tele-Text

Videotext and teletext are new technologies of enormous promise. In Europe teletext has been introduced on a wide scale. Teletext and videotext have replaced many traditional information sources (Gabriel 1988) in France, Great Britain, Canada, West Germany, Australia, Japan, Italy, etc., where national  videotext systems are in operation.

Teletext emphasizes information with broadest appeal-whether sports, news headlines, whereas videotext offers a wealth of more highly specialized services: educational features, classified advertisements, directory listings, financial data and much else. For this reason, videotext is the choice of many companies and they are investing considerable capital in its testing and development.


It is a two way interactive communication system, wherein students and other users can transmit requests to a central data base, often a very large computer, which can fulfill many requests simultaneously, for many different users. With video-text, transmission usually occurs via telephone or cable TV. And user often employs a personal computer and display terminals of one ki nd or another. There are three broad classes of videotext terminals  : (a ) Television sets with added decoders; (b) Micro computers possessing decoding programmers  for videotext; and (c) decoded videotext terminals.

A computer keyboard allows students to query the central data base or source in order to obtain specific information.


It is one way system with signals following from a source to a user who often reads the desired information on a television screen. The information may be relayed to the user over telephone lines, by radio and television signals, by cable-TV and even microwave transmission. In teletex, a single set of electronic text is sent simultaneously y to all viewers, and by using a special fixture attached to the set, a user can select certain pages of text from the continuously cycling pages of data appearing on the screen.

Specialized Educational Applications

In addition to specialized commercial development of videotext and teletext, educational institutions have developed recent innovative applications for classroom one of the most ambitious is called the “Electron ic Text Consortium”, which includes the University of Nebraska, Wisconsin Extension, San Diego and the Boston Educational Television Station WGBII. The students who had used videotext scored higher than the students who were in a control group (Pfochler, 1985). Other universities utilizing videotext are-San Francisco, Michigan, New York, Florida and South Florida. The benefits are striking to users, who receive a wider diversity of materials for study and research than would otherwise be obtainable. The disadvantages arise only from high costs in transmission.

Potential for the Future

In United States, the videotext companies are investing more and more on a technology that has been named “Quintessential Medium of 21st Century” (Fitzgerald, 1985). Link resources have drastically revised projections for videotext. As the number of the users is not high enough to satisfy advertiser’s criteria, there is a little hope that videotext will grow into a mass-market as an advertising medium.

Thus, the success of videotext and teletext is still very much in doubt.

Interactive Videodisc

There is a growing pool of information concerning the interactive video in education and industry. Beginning in the late of 1950s, this medium has effectively combined a micro computer and a videodisc/tape for instruction/ training. This technology had achieved success in many areas, particularly, I n military, health  care, employee’s training and special education (Evans, 1986).

Although, researches carried out on interactive video (Taylor; 1985; Bosco, 1984), focus set primarily on instruction for individual learners, yet, some studies (Malouf et al, 1986;Ki ng & Reeves, 1986), do indicate the effectiveness of this new medium for the group of learners. Vadas (1986) has also reported that in the interactive video group, learning was 300 per cent higher than the group learning i n the lecture class-room.

Use of Interactive Video Programmers

The simulation of thought and group discussion, is one of the primary instructional uses for this programmed. Secondly, interactive video can present a series of precise video sequences, specially based on learner input from the entire group. Such input is easily obtained through a consensus of the learners who are watching the scenes. Thirdly, not only interactive video allows learners to choose appropriate video sequences, it also allows for consequence remediation, where learners are able to see the results of particular actions. Another added feature of using group interactive video is that the entire group has the opportunity to see the results of a variety of choices from a number of different individuals. Thus, students may learn more from unintentional classroom activities and interaction than from situations that are pre-planned.

The relatively high cost of interactive video equipments often preclude the of enough instructional unit to implement effective individualized on In group interaction video, a school needs only to purchase a unit for an entire class. Thus, the interactive videodisc can be used both individualized and group instruction. However, its use for group interaction is more beneficial and productive. The interactive video has shown by a variety of studies to be effective in a number o instructional. A good example of such exuberance is the comment made by 198-t) : “There is a little doubt that microcomputer controlled systems represent the most potentially powerful communication  in the history of instructional communication.” Thus, there is a pressing need to retrain teachers to accept and use this new technology. Teachers’ acceptance will be an important hurdle to overcome as compared to the relatively high cost.

Robot Technology

Initially the industrial robots were touted to be a vital link to the further of the industries. Similarly, science fiction robots are used in and literature. In 1980s later robots were becoming more and more popular in the field of education. The news media and several other retailers ha e introduced robots for domestic use with the hope that an integration of robots with the society would be possible.

Educators, in general, have starting to realize some of the potential uses of robots. One of the significant use of educational robot was to aid disables visuals .However, as robots become increasingly available, it is important to know the basics of robotic techpeogy and the variety of its educational applications.

What is Robot?

“Robot is a combination of computer and mechanical technologies with the dual goals of mani pulation and movement.”

The major parts of the robot are

  • Controller: It is a part of the robot which is programmed with the needed steps for the robot to accomplish its task.
  • Power Supply: The energy (hydraulic, electric or pneumatic power sources), which allows the robot to perform its designated functions.
  • Manipulator: It is the mechanical part of the robot. It contains the actuators which convert power into useful movements. The manipulator most commonly refers to the arm of a robot. These are usually made of metal and may have an outer coverage of metal or plastic while some have an exposed skeleton and cabling.
  • Effectors: There is a vide variety of end effectors, e.g. vacuum and magnetic pickups, welding torches, point guns, etc. However, the most familiar is the two fingered gripper.

Educational Applications of Robots

(i) Robots as Exemplars : The robot can be used as a physical exemplar of computer control over a mechanical device. It also functions as an exemplar of the programming process by accepting and responding to instructions send to it in any programming language e.g. LOGO, BASIC, PASCAL (Watt 1984, Marsh & Spain 1984, Delgado 1986). As such, the use of the Terrapin Turtle, Topo and the RB.5X Robot as exemplars of LOGO procedures has been made in elementary and some kindergarten classes. Many parts and sub-systems of robot may be used to exempla iffy scientific and mathematical principles. In the subject Science, the concept of speed, force, acceleration, angular momentum and levers, etc., can be demonstrated using robots . Similarly, in mathematics-three dimensional Cartesian points and trigonometric functions can be explained by robots. Thus, robots can be integrated as a part of instructional technology.

(ii) Robot as an Object of Instruction: The expanding uses of robots in industrial manufacturing and production have led to the development of a new curricular initiative in physics, industrial engineering and technology. Vocational education is deeply involved in teaching robotics. Many countries, therefore, have invested in developing vocational education programmers to provide skilled technicians that can install, use, and service robots. Vocational schools have had to readjust their curricula to take into account the need of robotic education to train the required man-power.

(iii) Robots as Functional Prosthetic Aids: The use of robotic devices as prosthetic physical aids has been shown to be technological ly feasible and functionally effective (Hoscit et al. I 986, Seam one & Schmeisser, 1986, Leifer 1983). Progress  i n th is area promises to generate a variety of electromechanical devices for the enhancement of human abilities which have been damaged or are nonfunctional.  It appears that the prosthetic Advantages afforded by robotic devices applies to certain physically challenged it ions including spinal cords injuty (Petrofsky & Phillips, 1983; Marsolais & Kobetic, 1986), with cerebral palsy children (Howell et al. 1987) and  disabled geriatics patients (Englehardt & Awad Edwarda, 1985).

There are several constraints hampering the adequate investigation of robotic applications in special education, incl uding cost of hardware adaptation, d a software design and development (Moore, et al.1985). In addition, ere are no specifications of effective training methodologies i n the work as already been done. The future of robots is promising in this area may provide answers to vocational  and  recreational  needs  of the poetically handicapped.

Spatial Visual Computers

The micro computer offers unique capabilities for computation, motion, irnulation, color and sound cueing in visual learning strategies, pacing of cisuals. graphing and shading in the classroom. Motion, sound, color, pacing dynamic shading are relevant  variables to current research  involving learning and spatial visualization. Dwyer has conducted a series of researches (1968 a, b, 1969, 1972) on visual learning which sheds some on computer enhanced instruction and visualization. He found that televised line drawings, complemented by motion (such as dynamic s adding on a large computer screen), is an effective visual learning strategy. dynamic drawing may facilitate student’s achievement more than chalk-board drawing by focusing on important aspects of instruction and by ‘attracting students’ attention on relevant cues. In  1964, Kress and per found that external pacing is a crucial variable for high achievement “seal learning. When externally controlled pauses are built into computer acing instruction (CE!) software, i n pressing visual materials, a pace be selected by the instructor that is compatible with high mathematics element and that allows for individual validation of instruction. In view of Cronbach’s recommendation ( 1967) to conduct the researches on aptitude each as spatial-visual ability) that interact with variations in instructional presentation , an AT! (aptitude treatment interaction) study was carried out  Kiser ( l 986) on two colleges (Algebra classes) and reported the following dings concerning the pedagogical effectiveness of CEI :

  • Micro computer is an effective instrument to assist and enhance mathematics instruction;
  • CEI presentation does enhance positive attitude significantly and therefore, CEI students would be highly motivated;
  • Students with high spatial ability do significantly better in the CEI group than in the traditional group;
  • Computer presentation of a mathematics topic involving motion, simulation, sound, dynamic shading and external presenting is more effective than a traditional presentation of the same topic;
  • It demonstrated an innovative and effective strategy for teaching a traditional topic in mathematics (linear programming) and non­ traditional problem solving strategies and simulations.

Thus, it is clear that micro computer make significant variation in the achievements. Spatial visual ability is of special interest to mathematics teachers because it has a positive correlation with achievement, specially in plane and solid geometry (at high school) and in descriptive geometry and drafting (at higher levels). The educational implications of using computer technology in the classroom to enhance students’ spatial visual ability in every discipline are enormous. In future researches, attention of teachers, computer scientists and administrators is needed to investigate whether or not spatial-visual abilities (one of the primary mental ability- though rarely taught), as such, can be increased through class-room intervention with the computer.

Information Workstation Technologies

The information technology revolution, although more developed in some social contexts (e.g. industry, business) than others, has matured to the point that questions of equity (who benefits, when and how? and who plans and directs?) are currently paramount. The old educational arena is fragmenting and a new educational pattern is emerging: proximate to distant educational sources (Stephenson & de Landsheere, 1985).

Education is shifting its paradigms from how much or what a person knows about his ability to reorganize and restructure his mental functioning with the aid of new cognitive and educational tools (Pea, 1985). If proximate and distant work is so important to the success of scientists, businessmen, politicians, doctors and manufacturers, the proximate and distance education will take a new meaning

  • Proximate learning means education in a local setting (teacher/ parent and learner), where materials are maintained, selected and presented.
  • Distance education is learning which comes from a far and is exemplified by satellite, television, network and database technology applications.

At resent the educational institutions are characterized by the classroom easer (near education) whereas scientists depend upon information i .e. computers, networks, databases, etc. and are handicapped them (Jennings et al., 1986).According to Crecine (1986), the new  workstation will be available within few years. It will utilise UNIX­ nased systems software and will be 5 to 10 times effective than current micro computers. It   will also provide the user with the most advanced ensign aids, graphic tools and knowledge based systems. At present almost e very European  country  has national  information  network  which  is relined with the international network system. This includes United States “America too.

  • Proximate Information Technologies : The campus wide LANs hitch are rapidly being instal led in colleges and universities of developed and developing countries) will be the backbone for educational technological   As the  central  mission  of  universities  i s to  create  and disseminate information, borderzone development must include all social contexts,  where  public  information  is needed.  Some research findings national Task Force on  Educational Technology 1986, Stephenson & de Landsheere 1985) concl uded that in future, one may receive a major portion the education in the home.
  • Distance Information Technologies : Distant  technology location fit in any social context (home as well as school). Unfortunately cause the access is currently controlled through user cost, equity may omen a major    However, distance education  sources are liberating rapidly. Wide area networks are also increasing rapid. Potential balms which could limit the future of distant learning technologies include equity of users’ access, societal acceptance of distance education , reconciliation of technological innovation, political and economic realities and market place factors.

It is expected that by the year 2010 public schools, colleges and universities will integrate distance education with the present proximate education through the use of technological innovations like workstations.

Networking Computer Based Instruction

Telecommunication technology has tremendous impact on the computer world. All types of computers from large mainframes to remote computers are being linked through communication networks. This has led to the sharing of databases and the use of electronic mail.

Historically, major computer based instruction (CBI) systems such as PLATO or the HBM Interactive Instruction System (llS) have relied heavily upon communications for the remote delivery of course ware. Now-a-days, most systems use a standard protocol (ASCII) and can be accessed by any type of terminal or microcomputer. The use of networks to overcome the barriers to transportability is currently the main advantage of networks for CBI; a potentially more significant application is emerging in the form of computer­ conferencing and messaging to provide electronic lectures. These lectures allow the participants to take a course whenever and wherever they wish. These permit both, individual discussion with the instructor as well as group interaction with the other participants . Another major application of communication networks is to provide special ised education to children/ people with special needs, health education or insurance training.

Network Alternatives

There are a number of different network alternatives available which can be used for CBI systems. However, the two major types of networks currently in use are-   

  • Remote Networks: This involves the use of telecommunications between a central computer and database and the terminals or the micro computers used for instructional delivery or development.
  • Local Networks: Local networks do not need telecommunication links and usually connect terminals/micro computers in the same building or campus.


There are a number of different local network architectures and transmission tools. The most common are terminals and micro computer cabled directly to mainframe controllers by means of coax cable and using high speed synchronous protocols .


Remote or local networks can be either time shared or distributed systems. In a time shared system, all processing is done on the central computer and the other terminals/micro computers in the network simply act as input/ output devices. Whereas, in a distributed system, processing is done locally by the terminals micro computers and data is down loaded/up loaded between the central processor and the terminals. The role of the central processor in a distributed network is just  to manage the network, not to make computation.

Communication Components

to equip a micro computer for communications with a remote network, ree components are needed: software, a serial interface card, and a deem. Communication software provides the micro computer with the capability of transferring files and storing them on diskette. Thus, it allows e up loading/down loading capability of distributed systems. This software also provides the facility to change the parameters of communication protocols and switch from batch to interactive transmission. It also allows set display parameters such as-width , page size, display speed, etc.

Interconnecting Networks

To connect two local networks, a telecomm unction l ink is established been any two servers/terminals in the network. These two l inks are called the gateway nodes. The link may be directly connected between the o local networks or it may pass through a mainframe host. In addition, a coal network can be linked to a main frame, either directly or via telecommunications.  Since these gateway  nodes may involves different rotocols, the machines  which  serve as nodes  often  have  hardware  or ware protocol converters.

Public/Private Networks

Networks can be public or private. In developed countries most business organizations e.g. travel and hotel industry, bank, etc., have started their own private networks for administrative work.


A number of organizations are now offering electronic lectures conducted via computer conferencing. The systems involve public networks that can be accessed vi a any micro computer or terminal s equipped for communications.

The use of electronic lectures represents a new form of delivering classroom lectures at higher education in the United States of America. A substantial part of courses can be covered through computer mediated form, either in individualized learning form or group based electronic lectures. A significant policy implication of this development is that it allows the educational or training institutions to go beyond its regional sphere. Similarly, it allows an instructor to deliver lectures from any point in the country.

The sociological and administrative implications of such widely distributed teaching and learning device have not yet been explored, but are likely to bring about changes profound in existing institutional practices.

Some of these alternatives within the context of specialized CBI systems are PLATO, IIS or TICCIT, whereas others simply involve the transfer of course ware among standard micro computers equipped with similar kind of communications capability.

The major problems encountered i n using networks to share courseware are terminal incapability, inadequate networking software and lack of experience in using networks of group instruction and interaction. It addition, the use of electronic lectures and videotext, raises significant issues in institutional control of educational offerings. Delivery of instruction via communications has the potential to break traditional geographical barriers. Communications offer great potential to overcome earlier limitations of CBI in terms of sharing courseware and provide new opportunities for computer mediated group instruction. By combining individualized and group based instruction, networked CBI represents a more complete instructional delivery system. In conjunction with advances in other areas of computer and communication, CBI is gradually, beginning to live up to its true potential as an effective instructional medium.

At present a wide range of educational implications of intonation technology e given exerting glimpses of the capabilities of new technologies, and an insight into their possible role in national education systems. Fundamental research, analysis and synthesis are needed to guide policy planners and decision makers in taking advantage for making recommendations of these new tools, because without adequate planning the implementation of even a widely proven effective technology in education may have an adverse effect. Educators, computer scientists, policy planners, decision makers, schools and industries need a combined forum for the timely presentation and discussion of the burgeoning technical developments and potential that eye offer to education. On the basis of research findings, cost effectiveness, availability of hardware and software and instruction of efficacy, the third world countries would be in a position to decide the appropriate technology for raising their literacy percentage and quality of education.

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