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Teaching Online : How To Computer Guide Programme
for Effective Remediation
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The effective use of computer in teaching children with special educational needs is well documented (Howe, 1993; Agrawal, 2000 and Shah etal, 2002). Over the years, it has been realized that computer can offer significant assistance for the disabled students particularly in providing multi sensory approach to learning, interactive, individualized instructions and feedback. Secondly, through computers a wide range of content areas can be taught with record, evaluation and reinforcement facility (Anandan, K. 1997; Edwards et al 1975; Ball, 1991 ). Children with learning difficulties can learn daily living skills, fine motor control, eyehand coordination and various skills, through the computer without ceasing interest. Experience suggests that children with disabilities, need compensation i n learning experiences because of their special characteristics like difficulty I n associating concepts; limited ability to interpret and abstraction; lack of intellectual curiosity; short attention span. One of the most advantages of computer for deaf children is that once they have learnt to communicate with the computer, it enables them to proceed at their own pace (Goldernperg. 1979; Bog Hogg, 1984). Language and speech deficits to appear with deaf and partial ly hearing children (Dunn & Newton, 1986; Ross & Brackett, 1982; Cochran & Bull, 1993) The teacher/ therapist manages the problems with different traditional methods or uses speech trainer. But now-a-days the computer can be effectively used to teach speech and language to the hearing impaired students. As the different computer guided programmes are concerned, VISISPEECH’, developed by Royal National Institute for the Deaf (RNID), is a valuable system based on the ‘Apple Computer’ that displays either pitch or energy (fomants) information used for spectrographic analysis. Professor Fall sides System at Cambridge University distinguishes between fricative and non-fricative sounds. Another approach at Bristol University was developed to use a series of small meaningful symbols graphically displayed on the screen that can be used by teacher to communicate with the deaf people. The ‘Hands Computer Guided Package’ developed by the ‘SIGINT’ team at Derrymount School, Nottingham was an easy to use a step towards the acquisition of skills in the English language, through the recording of British Sign Language (BSL) as computer graphics. However application of computer programme for diagnosis and therapy of articulation has been rarely seen except Voice and Speech System (VSS), Bangalore (India) that developed Vaghmi System for diagnosis and therapy of voice and speech problems. VAGHMI consists broadly of three modules: Therapy, Diagnosis and Utilities. Different how to become a programmer are available for nasality, frication, and articulation and stuttering.
The present study was designed to develop computer guided programme for the diagnosis and remediation of articulation problem and to evaluate the effectiveness of the package being developed by involving an experiment.
The following hypotheses were formulated:
(i) Statistically, no significant difference exists between the articulation scores of hearing impaired students those who receive remediation (therapy) by computer guided programme and those students who receive remediation (therapy) by traditional method.
(ii) There exists no significant difference in correction of articulation errors of substitution, omission, distortion and addition by hearing impaired students, those who receive remediation (therapy) by computer guided programme and those who receive remediation (therapy) by traditional method.
The present study was an experimental research, involving ‘pre test-post test equivalent group design’, for ascertaining the intervention difference between computers guided programme and traditional programme, in articulation training of hearing impaired students in terms of effectiveness.
(A) Population of the Study
Population consists of hearing impaired students with severe hearing loss of age group 6 to I 0 years, studying in the deaf-dumb schools of Bareilly District.
(B) Selection of Sample
The hearing impaired students with severe hearing loss (both conductive and sensory neural type) diagnosed on Alps Pure Tone Audiometer- AD 2000, were selected as subjects for the study. These students were of 6 to 10 years of age, studying in a special school run by a Society ‘Jeevandhara’ for Rehabilitation Research and Training of Hearing Impaired, Bareilly. The number of students selected for the study was So. Two equivalent groups were formed on the basis of group matching method and then randomly these two groups were identified as Experimental and Control groups. The Experimental group comprised of 24 hearing impaired students whereas 26 hearing impaired students were assigned to control group.
The following tools were used for the study :
(i). Articulation inventory: The tool was developed by Dogra B., Mishra (1997), which was used for evaluation of articulation score before & after training. The inventory provides the teachers/therapist with ready inventory of child’s misarticulated sounds and identifies not only the actual sounds produced incorrectly but the place in the world where the error occurs (initial, middle and final); and type of error that exists, such as substitution, omission, addition or distortion. The tool comprises a set of 25 stimulus words with pictures. Each sound is tested at three different positions- initial, middle and final.
( ii).Computer Guided Programme : It is used for diagnosis and therapy of articulation problems. The software was developed by the researchers in ‘Author ware’, by using animation and bright colors for simulation, drill and practice, for remediation of velar, alveolar, dental, labiodentals and palatal sounds. The Authoring system typically includes ability to create, edit, and import specific types of data, assemble raw data into play back sequence of cue sheet, and provide structured method or language for responding to user input.
Testing procedure and scoring
Each sound was tested by showing the picture/word to the subject. Each response was reduced phonetically. Each response was categorized into successful, failure and unattempted. For each successful attempt child got ‘ I ‘score and ‘zero’ for failure or unattempted items. Further, failure sound was analyzed to find out the types of errors such as substitution, omission, distortion and addition (SODA). The impact of CBT method of therapy over traditional method of therapy was observed by comparing mean scores of post test of experimental and control groups applying matched group’t’ test.
The above observation justifies the effectiveness of computer guided programme for misarticulating remediation. It might be mentioned that efficacy of computer guided programme could be tested only after the remediation is given over a period of 6 months, because speech and language difficulties among hearing impaired population require intensive and longitudinal intervention.
In an nutshell, the philosophy of special education is to provide special material, special method and special teacher to train children with special needs. The present study proved to be an effort to develop specially designed instructional material for the hearing impaired students and as newer technology can assist in developing the ability of disabled students, therefore, therapeutic use of such technology must be encouraged.