Online free Teaching : College Student Attitude Towards PI and CAI

college student attitude towards, attitude theory, attitude examples, teaching online

Online free Teaching : College Student Attitude Towards

PI and CAI

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There are various ways to assess the advanced and developed stage of a society. One of them is to what extent and how the available technology is being used by the people. Mankind’s technology has achieved incredible advances over the past 60 years. Simultaneously, with the emergence of growing sophistication in behavioral sciences, efforts are being perpetually made to improve learning and classroom instruction by using latest technology. Programmed Instruction (Pl) with its principles of small steps, active responding, immediate confirmation, self pacing and students testing opened new vistas for change i n the field of pedagogical science. Recently, the evolution of computers has revolutionized the way in which hardware’s along with software can be used  for the purpose of instruction assisted by computer and knowledge acquisition through instruction, has conventionally fallen in the domain of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The techniques used in CAI are found to be influenced more or less by the strategy of Pl.

For the successful implementation of any new teaching strategy, students’ acceptance is a paramount determinant factor. It is students’ attitude which decides their acceptance towards a new media and method of teaching/ learning.

But, in practice, generally the researchers had shown lesser inclination to know the students’ attitude towards the method of teaching/learning than the attention to assess the cognitive achievements of the students ·being taught through Pl/CAI methods. It is very much important to make learning not merely less time consuming and more effective but also more interesting and exciting. Further, if we are going to present the programmed learning material through computer media, it becomes much more important to study the attitudes of students, so that, it may be decided that whether the machine presentation of the contents is preferable over the text presentation or not.

college student attitude towards, attitude theory, attitude examples, teaching online

Very few studies, Patricia ( 1973), Rubens ( 1986) and Walton ( 1986) were carried out to compare the attitudes of students towards Pl and CAI methods. In all these studies, two groups of students were taught separately through PI or CAI and found that students had shown more favorable attitude towards the method through which they were taught. In order to assess the comparative attitude towards these two methods, the researchers felt that the same group of students must have experiences with both the methods one by one. Also, an analysis of the gender differences  the attitude of students towards PI and CAI must be made to interpret that whether or not the differences in the upbringing and socialization of boys and girls influence their attitude towards latest technology. Accordingly, the present investigation was planned with the following:


(i).    To compare the students’ attitudes towards PI and CAI methods.

(ii).    To study the effect of sex on the studems’ attitude towards PI and CAI methods.


The following null hypotheses were formulated anc.1 subjected to statistical testing.

(i).          There is no significant difference in the attitude of students towards PI and CAI;

(ii).         No significant variation exists between the attitude of boys or girls towards PI and CAI (sex controlled);

(iii).        Boys and girls do not differ significantly in their attitude towards PI or CAI (method of instruction controlled).


An intact group of 51 students of class IX (boys and girls both) of ASC Central School, Bareilly was selected randomly as the sample for the present study. The age of these students was ranged between 13 to 16 years and all of them were able to read and comprehend the programmed material written in simple English. As, two of these students did not remain regular during whole of the experimentation, only 49 students (34 boys and 15 girls) finally comprised the sample of the study.


Following tools, developed and standardized by the authors, were used in the present study-

(a) Branching programmed Text on ‘Nutrition’

(b) Computer Programme on ‘Vegetative Propagation

(c) PI & CAI Attitude Scale.

The attitude scale was divided into two sub-scales i.e. ‘Attitude towards PI’ and ‘Attitude towards CAI’. Each subscale comprised of 15 statements and students were asked to show their responses on one of the five alternatives (Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree).


The present study was experimental in nature and ‘single group post-test only design’ was used. The aim was to compare the type of attitudes developed in individuals after getting the instruction through PI and CAI methods. Therefore, first of all an orientation talk about both the methods of instruction was organized with the students and they were taught conventionally how to go through the programmes. Then the booklets of ‘Branching Programme on Nutrition ‘ were distributed among them and they were asked to read the booklet at one time. Individual time was allowed to be taken by each student. After completion, the booklets were collected back. Next day, the same group of students received the individualised instruction for the concept of ‘Vegetative propagation’ through CAI. Thus, the whole group of students was provided with the opportunity to learn through both the methods of instruction. Attitude Scale towards PI and CAI was administered on the next day of completing the experimentation through these two methods on all the students. The summated ratings were worked out separately for attitude of each individual towards Pl and CAI methods. In order to compare the attitude of the students ‘t’ test was applied.


The main conclusions of the study were:

  • The students’ attitude towards Pl & CAI was found highly favorable. However, comparatively, they had shown more inclination towards CAI as compared to Pl method. It infers that by using the computers i n classroom teaching, the achievements of students will certainly be improved due to its capability of creating interest and motivation among students
  • On controlling the method of instruction and varying the sex, it was found that boys had shown more favorable attitude towards PI method than the girls. Therefore, care must be taken before presenting the programme material through scrambled text booklet in a co-education classroom,
  • Further, when sex was controlled and method of teaching was varied, boys were found equally inclined toward, both the methods­ PI & CAI, whereas, girls favored the CAI more than the Pl.


Thus, in nutshell use of computer and sex of the student, are found as significant variables in deciding the method of instruction to be used. However, the study also suggests that more experimental studies with more controlled condition (e.g. intelligence of students) should be conducted.

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