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Teaching Online Contents

- 1 Interpretation of Data of Criterion Referenced Tests
- 1.1 Percentage of Masters and Non-Masters
- 1.2 Distribution of Urban and Rural Girls According to Socio Economic Status
- 1.3 Ideal and Observed Statistics for Intermediate Home Science Paper-I
- 1.4 and Paper-II
- 1.5 Chance Statistics for Intermediate Home Science Paper-I
- 1.6 Relationship Between the Number of items Attempted and
- 1.7 Scores Obtained Paper I
- 1.8 Interpretation of Data of Criterion Referenced Tests (Part-1):- Click Here
- 1.9 Interpretation of Data of Criterion Referenced Tests (Part-3):- Click Here
- 1.10 Interpretation of Data of Criterion Referenced Tests (Part-4):- Click Here

**Interpretation of Data of Criterion Referenced Tests**

## Percentage of Masters and Non-Masters

** The percentages of masters and non-masters in home science paper-I and paper-II have been shown in Table-7. Table 8 shows that the percentage of mastery level of urban girls in home science paper-I is 7.3 and mastery level of rural girls in paper-I is 2%. The pooled estimate of mastery level of urban and rural girls in home science paper-I is 5.18 and non-mastery level is 94.82. The obtained value of critical ratio from, standard error percentage is 2.6 which are significant at .01 levels. Therefore critical ratio is above 2.58. The difference between scores of urban girls in paper-I and rural girls in paper-I is significant. This significant difference is not due to sampling error but is real. Urban girls mastery level is better than rural girls in home science paper-I. It may be due to better facility to urban girls.**

Table- 8 further indicates that the percentage of mastery level of rural girls in home science paper-I is 0.5% and urban girls in paper-II is 3%. The pooled estimate of mastery level of urban and rural girls in home science II is 2 and non mastery level is 98, the obtained value of critical ratio from standard error percentage is 2.08 which is significant at .05 level. Therefore critical ratio is below 2.58 and above 1.96. The difference between scores of urban and rural girls in home science paper-II is significant. Urban girls’ mastery level is better than rural girls in home science paper-II.

**Distribution of Urban and Rural Girls According to Socio Economic Status**

Table-9 shows the distribution of urban and rural girls according to socio economic status. Majority of urban girls belongs to middle class and lower middle class and majority of rural girls belongs to middle class, lower middle class and lower class. Scatter gram was prepared to calculate the correlation coefficient. Table-10 shows the correlation between urban S.E.S and overall scores of intermediate home science scores and also correlation between rural S.E.S and overall scores of intermediate home science. The correlation between urban SES and overall obtained scores of home science calculated to be .222. **The overall obtained scores of home science calculated to be. 304, which clearly indicates that there is no high relationship between the two variables. It is not essential that the girls belong to higher SES will achieve higher scores in home science likewise the girls belong to lower SES will get lower marks in home science. SES does not play important role for the achievement of home science. Although the correlation coefficient between the scores of home science and SES calculated to be positive is .222 and .304. The common factor between these two variables shares only 22% and 30%. Thus it is evident that for the maintenance of competencies in Home science SES is not effective.**

## Ideal and Observed Statistics for Intermediate Home Science Paper-I

## and Paper-II

The information regarding ideal and observed statistics for intermediate home science is given in Table-11. The statistical characteristics of a test indicate how good a test is, how far the observed test characteristics depart from the ideal ones. The table provides on the left hand side the statistics expected of the test of this size and specification, if the test were ideal. On the right hand side are given the statistics actually observed. To illustrate there is no ideal figure for the number of examinees, so there is no entry in the column “ideal” against this line. The number of examinees shown is 500 each for both the papers of Home science. It may be seen that the ideal range for the CRT is zero. This means that in a CRT an ideal situation every one would score the maximum marks, i.e. every girl would have achieved complete mastery; hence the ideal range in a CRT has been shown to be zero. Observed range for first paper was 8-71 and for second paper was 7-73. Similarly for a CRT in an ideal situation the mean score will be the maximum obtainable (i.e. 83 in paper-I and 95 in paper-II in the present case). The observed mean score for paper-I was 36.54 and for paper-II was 34.08. This means that as every girl is supposed to get the maximum marks, but it is true in the present study. Other information given in the Table-11 can be interpreted in the same way. The Table shows that the number who completed the test was cent percent in the case of both the papers of home science. This was so, because the time limit was not strictly followed by the investigator and a few girls who delayed the deposit of the test were allowed to do so. This was so because the main emphasis in the test was not on how fast the student could complete the papers, but on how correctly they could do so, given ample time.

Chance Statistics for Intermediate Home Science Paper-I

Summary of chance statistics for intermediate home science paper-I have been shown in Table-12. Chance statistics gives an idea of the probable scores of an average candidate whose all attempts were based on guessing alone (i.e. She did not have any idea of the correct answer, and all the options appeared to her a plausible answer). It may be recalled here that chance statistics show what would happen to an average candidate, there would be some fortunate guessers who would get more marks than mean chance scores by guessing alone and there would also be some fortunate guessers who would get even the mean chance score by guessing. Ina very large sample the number of fortunate guessers and of unfortunate guessers will be the same.

**It may be seen from the Table-12 that the mean chance score for home science paper-I was 21. The standard deviation of the chance score was 3.94. The chance score at the five percent level of confidence was 27.50 and at one percent was 27.50 and at one percent level of confidence was 30. The number of girls who scored at various chance levels are given against home science paper-I. For example, the number of girls who scored in paper-I below average chance score was 32, who scored at the average chance score was 5, at 5% chance level was 12, between means chance score and the 5% confidence level was 71, at 1.% chance level was 24, between 5% confidence level and 1% level of confidence score was 26 and at above 1% chance level was 330. This confirms that an unfortunate guesser may get less than the average chance score for the number of items attempted by her (It may however be pointed out here that a wrong answer does not indicate that girl must have guessed the response. It is possible for a sincere and honest student who does not just guess to get less than chance score due to misinformation in class).**

One feature that emerges from the Table 12 is that these tests were in no way easier. This however, cannot be considered as a weakness of the present paper, because the paper was primarily designed to measure the mastery of the course prescribed. All that the Table suggests is that there is a need for using more CRTs during the academic session and the remedial programmers for the weak students. In objective type tests one can get very high scores by guessing the right responses. It was therefore necessary to study the operation of chance factor in the present study. The formulae used for the calculation of chance statistics have been given in chapter 7.

## Relationship Between the Number of items Attempted and

## Scores Obtained Paper I

A visual representation of chance scores is given in Figure 7. In the figure the columns show the number of attempts, and the row show the scores obtained. To illustrate, the entries in column (Class interval 80-84) indicate that of all the 500 girls attempted all the 83 items of home science paper-I, similarly looking at the rows it can be seen that out of 500 girls who scored between the ranges of 5-74. Majority of girls obtained the score between the score range of 25-29 and 1 girl obtained the score between ranges of 5-9. The other rows and column can be interpreted in the same way.

The lines drawn in the Figure-7 can be interpreted like this. **The diagonal line, which splits the table in equal halves, sets the limit for getting the maximum sores for a given number of items. On this line would fall the cases who answered all the attempted items correctly. A large number of cases piling on this line would mean that the test was very easy so that almost, everyone got all the items answered correct. (A candidate’s scores will depend upon the number of items attempted. Obviously, there is no possibility of the departure of scores above this line as no one is expected to get more scores than the number of items attempted. The departure at the lower side of this line indicates that the test was difficult.)** Ina very difficult test, i.e. where all the students would get a zero mark,

Whatever be the number of items attempted all the cases will pile up at the bottom of the table. The scatter of cases between these two limits indicates the difficulty of the test items. The lines between the diagonal line and the x-axis indicate the limit of getting a score at various chance levels. The line representing mean chance score indicates the maximum limit of getting a chance score for a given number of attempts in the case of on average student, the line drawn representing 5% chance level indicates maximum limit of getting a score by guessing alone for a given number of items attempted at the five percent confidence level. This means that only 5 students out of 100 can get as high score as the ones set by the 1ine by guessing alone. The line representing 1% chance level sets the limit of getting a score for a given number of attempts at 1 % confidence level. That is only one student out of one hundred can get as high score as the ones set by this line for a given number of attempts by chance alone. (Around 34 percent cases got score, which are below one percent 1eve!. The scores of 66% candidates cannot be attributed to chance.)