Teaching Online Contents
- 1 Information and communications technology
- 2 Enabled teacher
- 3 Vast Potential Of Internet Connectivity and Teachers
- 4 Training Programmes through ICT Facilities
- 5 Distance Mode
- 6 Networking of Teacher Education Centers
- 7 Restructuring curricula
- 8 ICT in Teaching
- 9 ICT in Research
- 10 ICT in Evaluation
- 11 ICT in Special Education
Information and communications technology
The Buzz world of the 21st century is Telemetric (Computers connected to networks). It d enotes the emergence of new technologies of communication and most significantly, the telemetric revolution. Globalization and Communication technologies have caused and resulted in the growth of each other and have influenced one another in complex and multiple ways. New trends in education teaching online have also come about, and new challenges have been thrown up to reckon! At the same time there is an indisputable need to maintain continuity, change and growth, all at once! Society has been credited with creating technology but, technology is simultaneously creating society. These observations would also suggest that technology is beginning to exercise a benevolent tyranny over human kind. People have become “Compulsive Information Consumers” who favor the passive reception of Information as a form of entertainment.
The nature and applications of computer technology has continued to expand rapidly the range of resources available for any subject-specific learning. Educators must be imaginative, flexible and willing to renew their visions of teaching and learning, if they are ready to realize the potential of educational technology fully. Telemetric revolution has brought I n revolutionary transformation and drifted the whole lifestyle of people. No area is left untouched with Information Technology. We have arrived at a global village concept with all virtual realities on our desktops. But still teacher education has largely remained untouched in this direction.
Information Technology has long been at the top of the agenda for action in Indian Educational System. Developments in the service sector and information society require the young people to be so equipped that all of them can take part on equal footing in the society of the future. In this process, an initiative in the field of education as a whole is taken and teacher education is quite central.
We already have many positive experiences in involving JCT in teacher education. A survey was conducted by Gujarat University, Bharatidasan University and Aligarh Muslim University in the states of Gujarat, Tamilnadu and Uttar Pradesh respectively to find how computers were used i n pedagogy. Most of the computer time as indicated by the survey was spent in teaching online computer courses. The number of institutions, where computers are used as a teaching aid is insignificant. As the institutions are not using computers for pedagogy, the research carried out in the use of computer in pedagogy is also insignificant. The reason for this low use may be due to lack of technical support to the faculty for developing computer aided material and availability of relevant hardware and software. However, in some of the institutions serious efforts have been made to use computer for model building, which can be used as a pedagogical tool.
The efforts made are not up to the mark that they can have impact on socio-economic development of the country. India will have to empower its manpower to use ICT. In order to empower man power knowledge, workers and administrators will have to be trained in the use of ICT. In this respect it would be useful to follow the model of British Universities and Colleges, instituted as “Millennial Cells”. We should have seperate “Cyberage Cells” consisting of teachers, students and business representatives with a view to develop gradual cyber age compliance in respect of knowledge, curriculum, delivery of teaching, promotion of leaning, building up a support climate, encouraging innovations i n research, forging links between education and society, and turning the human resource of students, teachers and community into a revisable power house of development and change. Of course, this will require the formation of a vision of cyber age education on the part of every institution. An important prerequisite for further development of these experiences is to ensure that through training, teachers receive a fundamental qualification in the inclusion of IT-related topics in their professional, pedagogic and didactic considerations.
The area of teacher training is an important one for us to tckle, since it is the colleges of education and university departments of education which . produce teachers who will have to carry out the integration of JCT in teaching.
A strategy for JCT in the training of teachers must take into account the fact that there are several target groups e.g.student-teachers, teachers at colleges of education and heads of these institutions, whose commitment will be necessary to obtain significant results through follow-up activities. It is important that student-teachers, teachers at colleges of education and teachers of university departments of education to be enabled to achieve the following ICT qualifications through teacher training or inservice training and further training in the use ICT.
- Teachers must have a basic qualification including ICT related topics, from the view poi nt of their professional, pedagogic and didactic considerations. They must be able to communicate in a much easier and effective way the knowledge about the social importance of information and Communication Technology.
If this goal is to be achieved, it will require that teachers have the following qualifications
- A general knowledge of how ICT helps education.
- Knowledge of methods and concepts in ICT-based Technology supported learning, teaching and education.
- Basic knowledge of ski l l s i n the use of Information and communication technology as an instrument in the daily preparation and performing teaching activities.
- The experience of various methods for evaluating the quality and utility of ICT-based information, teaching materials and teaching environments.
- Insight and experience in the development of methods to evaluate ICT-based and technology supported learning, teaching and education.
The Areas of Effort
If the professional qualifications of teachers in ICT are to be improved, it is necessary to look out at the relevant areas. They are:-
(I) New teaching environments and forms of the study and education.
(II) New forms of evaluation.
(III) Flexible further training and practice.
(IV) Co-operation and the development of organization .
(I) New teaching environment and forms of study and education
The efforts in this area will help to promote initiatives by which teaching, about and through ICT can be integrated into courses based on learning carried out in the class room and on individual basis. Emphasis is to create new interactive learning environments and changed conditions for education, with a view for promoting process and participant-oriented learning, variation in the forms of teaching, the development of new forms of teaching, the development of new methods of evaluation and of teaching materials. I nitiatives are thus, expected to contribute new experiences in the development of a common foundation of knowledge about the integration of lCT and development of technology supported learning.
(II) New forms of evaluation
This area is expected to promote initiatives having the purpose of examining the potential of technology supported learning in relation to the development of new forms of current and final evaluations, including examinations, tests and other forms of evaluation, based on the participants own goals of learning. It will certainly be especially interesting to examine and develop the new potential for storage, interaction and documentation that are part of technology supported learning. The area will be decisive for the general development of technology-supported learning. Since new forms of evaluation must be made to interact with the development of new forms of study and teaching.
(III) Flexible further training and teaching practice
The integration of ICT and the development of technology supported learning can contribute to the further development of the relationship between theory and practice in teacher-training. New forms of dialogue based on telecommunications can create increased interaction between theoretical reflections which are part of the teaching and learning at colleges of education, university departments and the learning in practice which takes place during teaching practice. Correspondingly, the development of technology supported learning can contribute to the creation of new opportunities for flexible, further training for teachers at colleges of education and teachers in the institutions where they are employed. The relationship between theoretical reflection and learning through practice can be changed, in such a way that an increasing part is played by actual educational needs, co-operating teams and Portici pant-oriented working methods. It will be interesting to study and develop the possbifues of creating filter action between several target groups. Experimental initiatives that seek to create a synergy effect in the development of technology-supported teaching online learning, can contribute significantly in the development of common basis of knowledge.
(IV) Co-operation and development of organization
The final area of effort is to promote the development of new lines of action and working methods in relation to the integration of ICT and the development of technology supported-learning. Existing experiences with development of technology supported learning are unanimous in indicating that organizational changes are a vital prerequisite, if the development is to be successful. Leadership commitment is a foremost necessary requirement for success. Special interest should be directed at initiatives that examine and develop new forms of leadership and cooperation as a part of the organizational development. It will, therefore, be essential to examine and formulate methods for the strategic development and formation of plans of action for technology-supported learning at colleges of education.
The primary initiatives are expected from student-teachers, teacher-educators, working at colleges of education or at university departments and heads of these institutions. To evaluate the present strategy it should include an assessment of each possible combination of area of effort (new forms of evaluation, flexible further training and teaching practice, co-operation and development of organization) and target group (student teachers, teachers at colleges of education and teachers at university departments).
Vast Potential Of Internet Connectivity and Teachers
There is a need to provide in-service teacher training to all teachers and teacher educators with updated computer education skills and ICT know how to utilize the facilities to access updated information and solutions to their problems in their areas of specialization.
Training Programmes through ICT Facilities
A virtual teacher education centre be created. All the necessary skills and training can be provided in different modes on the network. ICT should incorporate all the available ICT facilities like tele-education, tele conferencing, floppy diskettes, and CD-ROMs in teacher education courses. Networks like ERNET, INTERNET and futuristic concept of bringing satellite channel directly to homes by DTH (Direct to Home) service and expert talks through virtual classrooms can also be made available.
The present practice of TV and other media in distance mode of education can be substituted by multimedia system which have an extra advantage of being more interactive through GUI (Graphics user interface) which control the response of information transfer process according to the learner’s pace. It helps in using screen as a self-learning.
Networking of Teacher Education Centers
At par with libraries, banks and research networks like INFLIBNET, REINET and CSIRNET, teacher education centers should also have a separate network. This enables them to exchange information, naturally though, style of functioning new strategies & experiments and innovations in their field. There will be a possibility for a standardized system of training. Teaching online must be given excellent training in setting and grading the question papers and preparing assignments. These can be used in teacher training networks. Excellent simulated models can be made available to access on the network.
Teacher education curriculum needs drastic changes by incorporating all facilities available through ICT. Primarily, ICT can be used to be at par with the existing knowledge structure. It can be incorporated into methodologies of teacher education . There should not be exclusive theoretical orientation in curriculum. JCT shall have more practically demonstrable skills and strategies in the curriculum.
Ail possible attempts should also be made to train teachers apart from virtual classrooms, to incorporate the necessary live interactive experiences to understand the significance of physical interaction with the child in the classroom. Humanistic and effective hidden curriculum and an effective training to acquire all traits and qualities required in a teacher to handle human society should be included in the curriculum.
ICT in Teaching
Teaching in higher education, mostly, concentrates on giving information which is not the sole objective of higher education teaching online. The objectives are multi dimensional in nature, so to achieve all these, the appropriate methods should be used in an integrated fashion. At present ICT may be of some help. It is a well accepted fact that today a single teacher is not capable of giving up to date and complete information in his own subject. The ICT can fill in this knowledge in because it can provide access to different sources of information. It will provide information correctly, as comprehensive as possible, in different formats and with different examples. ICT provides this facility, so that, learners can exchange their ideas and views and get clarification from experts, etc. JCT provides variety in the presentation of the content which helps to learners in concentration and better understanding and long retention of information which is not possible otherwise. The super high way and cyber space also help in qualitative improvement of Teaching-Leaning process.
ICT in Research
Internet facilities should be made available to research students and teacher educators. All the departments should have internet connectivity. The networking of research bases and the creation of information highways have already changed the methodologies of research. Today, a research worker has access to almost unlimited information and is exposed to wider spectrum of ideas and concepts. A ICT researcher can conduct research in collaboration with his/her counterpart(s) from other countries. The research data sharing analysis and interpretation has improved to a great extent. It has impr9ved the reliability of research findings. Consequently acceptability has also increased. With research contributions, getting much greater exposure an improvement in quality can be foreseen.
Industries must start funding the universities as well as research organizations. Once research quality improves, the development based on ICT is bound to improve. The brain wastage that; irises from internal deterioration and external drain will be remedied by the use of ICT in education and research.
ICT in Evaluation
The evaluation systems also need to be changed. We evaluate the students in a ritualistic way every year. The new system of evaluation will be continuous and individually centered. What it means is that theoretically, there can be a day to day evaluation of one’s capacity. It is, therefore, possible that a situation may arise where the child may acquire the intellectual maturity several years earlier than his physical age. This would mean that the mental age required to perform a job would be reached much earlier but not the physical age. Such events are going to cause a major turmoil and discontinuities in the process of education system and our way of thinking, teaching, learning and problem solving.
ICT in Special Education
Advances in technology have always meant better, faster and cheaper products which make life more convenient and organized. For people with disabilities, the promise is greater. Technology helps in turning their long cherished dreams into realities. Dreams to play a game of chess with their friends write letters to their moms or give a presentation in annual corporate meeting without any assistance from any one. The ultimate result is independence and self reliance. It is all about making the less fortunate people free from the bonds of reliance and taking charge of their lives.
Emerging technologies are not only helping disabled people to gain physical independence but also acquire the requisite skill to become an important part of the society and economy. Till recently, people with certain disabilities could not fully exploit the potential of PC’s. For instance, if they were unable to use a keyboard or mouse, they could not input information. But this is now changing, as computer manufacturers and software developers are focusing on assistive and adaptive technologies. Screen magnification, Screen readers, Track balls, Voice input, Alternative key boards, key guards, Braille displays, Screen displayed keyboards and single switch scanning displays, are some of the examples of assistive adaptive technologies.
ICT is providing solutions for the education of the physically challenged peoples as well. As reported by the BBC website, the Germans have developed a technology and associated software where in computers will sense the signals from the head of a paralyzed person, through two attached electrodes, and thereby, allow the physically challenged person to surf the net like a normal person. These facilities will transform the lives of physically challenged. ICT can be used here for even diagnosing the disability.