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ict instructions concept Design theory & Models

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Behaviorism was the pre-dominant school of thought in the first half of the 20th century. According to behaviourists’ view, the things Worth studying about human teaching online learning are observable behaviours. Early behaviourists chose not to include mental events into their learning theories, arguing that such events are impossible to observe and measure, so could not be studied objectively. However, during 1950s and 1960s many psychologists became increasingly dissatisfied with such a thoughtless approach to human learning. As a result, major cognitive works began to emerge. The works of Gestalt psychologists, Edward Tolman, Jean Piaget and other learning researches have laid a foundation for Cognitive Learning Theories. During 1960s, discontent with the inadequacies of behaviourism became more widespread. The behaviourist perspective could not explain why people attempt to organize the information and make sense to learn it easily? or why instead of verbatim information people remember only the general meaning? Thus, learning psychologists had emerged to the conclusion that mental events or cognition could not be ignored. B.y the 1970s, many learning theorists had joined the cognitive field of thought and incorporated the role of information processing system and meta­ cognition i n their theories.

Vis-a-vis l 950’s were characterized by a shift away from the uniform application of instructional technology to the formulation of theoretical models of learning. In 1954, Skinner canonized the basic behaviorist principles of S-R, feedback, and reinforcement. As the key element of his theory of operant conditioning, the reinforcement of desired learner responses was also incorporated into Skinner’s implementations of programmed instruction. Programmed instruction emphasizes the formulation of behavioural objectives, breaking instructional content into small units and rewarding correct responses  early and often.

Another substantial instructional theorist of the 1950’s was Benjamin Bloom (1956). His taxonomy of intellectual behaviours provided to instructors a means by which to decide how to impart instructional content to learners most effectively, Advocating a mastery approach to teaching online learning, the instructional techniques endorsed by Bloom were flexible in both instruction and time, according to learner requirements. In 1960s mediation of instruction entered the computer age and learner feedback, branching, and response tracking­ aspects were incorporated  into the PLATO system in the 1970’s.

As early as 1962 Gagne demonstrated a concern for the different levels of learning, H is differentiation of psychomotor skills, verbal information, intellectual ski l ls, cognitive strategies, and attitudes provides a companion to Bloom’s six cognitive domains of learning. Later, Gagne extended his thinking to include nine instructional events that detail the conditions necessary for leaning to occur. These events have long since been used for the basis for the design of instruction and the selection of appropriate media.

A variety of models for instructional systems design were proliferated in late J 970’s and early 80’s of ADDIE, Gagne and Briggs, Dick and Carey, Kemp and Atkins, to name a few. Cognitive learning theories themselves do not offer guidance in how to teach (e.g. English grammar). To identify useful methods for particular situations, an instructional design theory is needed. In contrast to learning theories, instructional-design theories are more directly and easily applied to educational problems. These theories are useful for understanding why an instructional-design theory works. Thus, learning theories make the foundation base and instructional-design theories as the house built upon it.

What is an Instructional-Design Theory?

Educational psychology, as it is taught today, gives great credence to the cognitive theories. Instructional system design is dependent on the educational psychology foundation to generate methodologies and models for the design and delivery of instruction. Instructional Design is about promoting the cognitive process that lead to learning.

An instructional-design theory is a theory that offers explicit guidance on how to help people to learn and develop better and include cognitive, emotional, social, physical, and spiritual development. Instructional theories are generally prescriptive in nature and suggest that if instruction includes certain features, then as a result will emerge certain degrees of learning outcomes.

Gagne and Dick ( 1983) describe instructional-design theory as an attempt of relate specified events of instruction to teaching online learning processes and learning outcomes. The characteristics of an instructional design theory is-

  • Based on the knowledge base of learning, research and theory.
  • prescriptive i n the sense that it attempts to identify conditions of instruction which will optimize learning, retention and learning transfer.
  • expected to provide at mini mum, rational description of causal relationships bet ween procedures used to teach and their behavioural outcomes, preferably enhanced human performance .

Reigeluth ( 1999) describes the characteristics of an instructional-design theory as:

  • An orientation towards only design, focusing on the means to attain goals for learning and development. It is not only description oriented, but also goal oriented, and based on prescriptive theories. These are practical and useful to educators,, showing them how to achieve their goals.
  • Identification of methods of instruction ,which are ways to support and facilitate instruction, and the situations in which those methods would and would not be used . These two components are necessary for all instructional-design theory and indicate that methods are situational, not universal in application.
  • The methods are based on probabiIity’rather than on determinants. It means more emphasis is given to the chances of attaining the goals rather than ensuring attainment of the goals.
  • In every instructional-design theory goal has a value which plays a key role in deciding the selection of methods to attain the set goals.

Recent Instructional theories are fostering understanding, building higher order thinking skills, developing meta-cognitive skills, designing problem­ based and interdisciplinary or thematic learning environments. These theories are not only tailoring instructional guidance to specific content area idiosyncrasies but also in the affective domain.

The learning, for example problem-based learning, project-based learning, simulation, tutorials and team-based learning focused instructional theory must offer guidelines for the design of learning environment which provide appropriate combinations – challenge and guidance, empowerment and support, self-direction and methods of instruction i.e. Learner’s should be able to make decisions about both content and strategy while the instruction is i n progress.

Instructional Systems Design Models

The instructional design principles are significantly influenced by learning and instructional design theories. instructional Systems Design (ISO) Models are the systematic guidelines that instructional designers follow in order to create a workshop, a course, a curriculum, an instructional programme, or a training session. ISO Models are visualized representations of an instructional design process, showing the main elements or phases, and their relationships. More prominent models are (a) ADDIE Model, (b) Gagne Model, (c) Dick & Carey Model, (d) Kem p Model, and (e) ESD Model. These models share three major  activities: analysis, strategy development and evaluation. The above five models are examples of distinct approaches.

(a) ADDIE Model is used for general purposes and is most useful for creating instructional prod ucts. It is also applicable for programme design.

(b) Gagne Model This model includes 9 events of 8 condition and 5 taxonomies of instruction. it has influenced many other design approaches particularly Deck and Carey Systems approach.

(c) Dick & Carey Model exemplifies the systematic approach to curriculum and programme design.

(d) Kemp’s Model is most useful fool large-scale programmes involving groups of people and multiple resources.

(e) Education Systems Design Model (ESD) is a radical change to the long-lasted issues i n education. It is most important for information age education system

(a) ADDIE Instructional Model

   ADDIE is the systematic approach to Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of learning materials and activities. Instructional design aims for a learner- centered rather than the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, so that effective learning can take place. This infers that every component of the instruction is governed by the learning outcomes which have been determined after a thorough analysis of the learners needs. These phases sometimes overlap and can be interrelated. However, they provide a dynamic, flexible guideline for developing effective and efficient instruction.

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  • Analysis: Analysis is the foundation for all other phases of the instructional design. This covers to identify its sources of the problem and determine possible solutions. This phase may include specific techniques such as needs analysis, job analysis and task analysis. The outputs of this phase often include the instructional goals and a list of tasks to be instructed. These outputs will be the inputs for the Design phase.
  • Design: The design phase involves using the outputs from the analysis phase to plan a strategy for developing the instruction. This phase determines the outline how to reach the instructional goals finalized after analysis and expands the instructional foundation. some of the elements of the design phase may include defining the target population and its description, conduction a learning analysis, writing objectives and test items, selecting a delivery system, and sequencing the instruction. The output of the design phase will be the inputs for the development phase.
  • Development: The development phase builds on the basis of both the analysis and design phases. the purpose of this phase is to generate the lesson plans and lesson materials, During this phase, the teacher will develop the instructional steps, supporting media that will be used in the instruction and other supporting documentation. This may include hardware (e.g. simulation equipment) and software (e.g. computer­ based instruction)
  • Implementation: The implementation phase refers to the actual delivery of the instruction, whether it would be classroom- based, lab- based, or computer- based. The effective and efficient delivery of instruction is the main purpose of this phase. This phase must promote the students’ understanding of material, support the students’ mastery on the subject, and ensure the students’ transfer of knowledge from the instructional setting to the real situation (job).
  • Evaluation: This phase measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the instruction. Evaluation actually occurs throughout the entire instructional design process- within phases, between phases as well as after the implementation phase. Evaluation may be (i) formative or (ii) summative.

(i). Formative Evaluation is ongoing during and between phases. The purpose of this type of evaluation is to improve the instruction before implementing the final version of instruction/knowledge transmission.

(ii). Summative Evaluation usually occurs after the final version of instruction is implemented. This type of evaluation assesses the overall effectiveness of the instruction. Date from the summative evaluation is often used to make a decision about the instruction (such as whether to purchase an instructional package or continue/discontinue it).

(b) Gagne Instructional Design

Gagne incorporated cognitive psychology theories specifically the information processing model of cognition. According to Gagne, “The model posts a number of internal processes that are subject to the influence of a variety of external events. The arrangement of external events to activate and support the internal processes of learning when deliberately planned those events that that constitute instruction” (Gagne, 1977).

Elements of Disk & Carey Model For Designing Instruction

(1) Determine Instructional Goal- It covers what the learners will be able to do after completing the instruction? And analysis of discrepancy between an instructional goal and the present state of affairs?

(2) Analyze Instructional Goal- A step by step analysis of what learners will be doing during the goals will be  performed and what entry behaviors will be needed?

(3) Analyze Learners and Contexts- This step covers the context in which the skills (e.g. intellectual skills, abilities- verbal comprehension and spatial orientation) will be learned and the context in which the skill will be used.

(4) Performance Objectives- Performance objective means determining specific behavior skills to be learned, the conditions under which instruction must be performed and what should be the criteria for learner’s successful performance.

(5) Develop Assessment Instruments- These instruments cover the assessment of the performance  based on the objectives.

(6) Develop Instructional Strategy- To identify the instructional strategy and to achieve the terminal objectives, emphasis on presentation of information, practice, feedback and testing is required. The delivery system is teacher led group paced vs. learner centered, learner paced.

(7) Develop and Select Instruction– Selection and production of instructional material depend on choice of delivery system.

(8) Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation- Evaluation of instructional materials in one-to-one, small groups or field, is essential before preferring instruction so that the materials can be evaluated with learners and revised prior to distribution.

(9) Formative Evaluation- Revised instruction data yielded from the formative evaluation must be summarized and interpreted to identify difficulties experience by learners in achieving the objectives and to relate these difficulties to specific deficiencies in the materials and more instruction process as effective as possible. The evaluation is carried out either individually or in small groups and field trials.

(10) Summative Evaluation- Independent evaluation to judge the worth of the instruction and study the effectiveness of the system as a whole is one of the steps for a successful instructional model.

(11) Instructional Implementation- Learning is based on mastering a set of behaviors which are predictable and, therefore, reliable. The correct instructional analysis and instruction will lead to demonstrate, skills.

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