Teaching Online Contents
- 1 ict instruction through Interactive video disc
- 2 What is Multi-Media?
- 3 What is a Videodisc ?
- 4 Types of Videodiscs and Players
- 5 Instructional Designs
- 6 Reactive Design
- 7 Coactive Design
- 8 Proactive Design
- 9 Videodisc Technology in the Classroom
ict instruction through Interactive video disc
ict:- Information and communications technology
The knowledge explosion and the associated growth of new technologies I required changes in the curricula and development of tools to increase the instructional productivity. There is evidence to suggest technology that has the potential to increase the instructional productivity. Baker (1978) stated about one of the oldest tools, the computer managed instruction that: “the teacher is freed from many clerical level tasks and is able to devote more time to instructionally related tasks. The greater the degree of computer involvement, the greater will be the gain i n usable time”. It is time, what John Sculley said that, “Multi-media has the capability to change the world i n 1990s as personal computers did i n 1980s.” The researches have also shown that inadequate training of teachers i n using the new media has resulted in lack of improvement in the teaching effectiveness.
What is Multi-Media?
Multi-media is not a machine or a system; it’s not a newly discovered principle. Milburn ( l 990) defined “multi-media is an objective describing a multi sensory approach to the disbursement and acquisition of information: Text and pictures, Still graphics and full-motion video, Pictures and text manipulated with buttons and slider bars. Any combination of any number of preceding elements.”
What is a Videodisc ?
A Videodisc is similar to a CD, that holds still images, video segments and sounds. The advantages of the videodisc over videocassette are high quality images, still frames, fast access (usually less than one second) to any part of the disc, freedom from wear and inexpensive mass production. When combined with computer, videodisc becomes a powerful audio-visual database for interactive teaching and learning. Information on the disc cannot be changed by the user. Disadvantages are playback only, and high production cost.
Types of Videodiscs and Players
The constant linear velocity (CLY) videodiscs are primarily used for linear playback applications such as movies, musical performances, and so on. These discs may be recorded with one frame per track near the centre of the disc and up to three frames per track near the outside of the disc. Due to this quality, the CLY videodiscs must play at speeds varying from 1800/ rpm (revolutions per minute) near the centre to 600/rpm near the outside. Thus, it plays at a speed 30 frames per second, required to be compatible with National Television Standard Committee (NTSC) video and therefore, displayable on standard television sets. The CLY videodiscs permit a forward and reverse scanning as dual-channel audio , But CLY is relatively limited in its interactive potential.
The constant angular velocity videodiscs (CAY) rotate at a fixed speed, like a hard disc in a computer. One revolution of the disc is one NTSC composite television image. There are 54000 tracks on the disc, which can include still and motion pictures. In CAY, many user control capabilities are present such as freeze frames, step frames, slow motion frames searches and picture stops.
Instruction through Interactive Video disc Levels of Interaction
Such videodisc players are designed for linear playback only. These players are the least expensive, but they are also the most limited, allowing virtually no user interaction. Player capabilities differ (depending on the mode) but sometimes include forward and reverse motion at variable speed, audio channel selection, and number identification.
These videodisc players have all of the Level-0 capabilities plus search and automatic stops. In addition, several Level-I players include interface ports that allow to be upgraded to Level-III players. Most level-I players also have the facility with a hand controller. The videodiscs produced for level-I players consist primarily of visual databases.
These videodiscs are controlled by a computer programme that is handled in one of two ways. The programme can be placed on the disc’s second audio channel during the process and automatically loaded into the player each time that the disc is played, or it can be input manually and with the player’s hand controller each time that the disc is played.
videodisc players are used primarily for educational and industrial applications. They include all the capabilities oflevel-1plus they have faster access time, programme looping and branching capabilities. Increased durability’s, a built-in interface port, and a built-in microprocessor that permits programmed control of the videodisc.
These videodiscs are controlled by an external computer. All videodisc players with interface ports can be upgraded to Level-Ill players.
The external computer’s added power provides the following additional capabilities:
- The videodisc can be controlled by more sophisticated programming;
- More than one videodisc player can be controlled by the same computer;
3. Overlays of computer-generated text and graphics can be superimposed over videodisc images; and
4. User input can be recorded and documented for testing and market research purposes.
An interactive media package is only as good as the instructional design behind it. One of the strengths of the new interactive video medium is the flexibility that it’ offers to both the user and designer. A well-designed disc can be used with a number of computer programmes to deliver a variety of learning experiences to different audiences. The videodisc has the capability of storing vast amounts of information. The larger the information base, the greater is the flexibility in combining the sequences.
The degree of interactivity in an interactive video system is usually defined with regard to the capabilities and characteristics of the hardware. Rhodas and Azbell ( 1986) have developed a system to categorize the interactivity with respect to the control that the learner has over the programme content and structure. The three designs proposed by them, are ‘Reactive, Coactive, and Proactive’.
The user or learner has very little control over the programme content or structure in the reactive design. This design can utilize either a linear or branching format, i n the line format the learner moves through the programme in a specific sequence regardless of the response made. This type of courseware has the lowest level of interactivity. A branching format is dependent upon the user’s response. The programme may use the quality of the response, the number of responses given or even the amount of time taken to respond to determine the branching path for the learner. An individual that needs a quick review of material previously learned will move through the programme quite rapidly whereas someone learning the material for the first time may branch to various screens to receive help for concepts that are unclear.
The strength of the reactive design lies in the fact that as the learner proceeds through the programme she/he will be mastering the new materials as well as receiving feedback on any misconceptions they might have with the new content area. Correct answers are reinforced with positive feedback and for incorrect answers, the misconceptions can be clarified with additional branching. A reactive design programme might be used to teach a procedure that must be done in a specific way. The design of the programme ensures that trainees receive the necessary information for performing specific tasks.
Though the learner makes very few decisions in this type of interactive video programme that does not mean the programmes should not be developed with creativity, imagination and appropriate level of complexity. It is the responsibility of the instructional designer to present the information in an entertaining yet meaningful way.
In a coactive design, the learner has extended control over either the programme structure or the programme content. For example, with respect to programme structure, she/he may be able to choose the type of presentation, the pace of the lessons, the order in which the materials are presented and the type of feedback provided or the user may extend his or her control over the programme content by choosing the topics to be covered and the level of vocabulary or complexity to be used.
Simulations are a good example of the user’s ability to control the structure but not the content of the interactive lessons. The content presented will be standard for all the learners although the order in which it is presented may vary. Once the content has been presented, the learner will utilize that information in a series of exercises. When learners have extended control over content, their learning can be enriched by additional examples or a variety of illustrations of the material. The sequence of activities and the type of feedback have been chosen by the designer, but the user can choose the particular content to learn. This type of design is beneficial in the areas where the learner wants to practice certain skills or further his knowledge about a specific content area. A nurse wishing to increase her knowledge about a specific medication or treatment would be a good example of this type of coactive design.
In a proactive design for interactive video, the users have control over both the content and structure of learning situation. However, the num beer of choices allowed to them through the courseware is limited. In this situation; the learner designers select their own individualized instructional programme that fits best with their learning style and previous knowledge. The instructional designer provides a variety of interesting contents and structural areas and the learner chooses which of these areas to explore. Proactive design is ideal for encouraging learners to explore the situations with which they rarely deal but still need information.
In designing an instructional proactive design, the instructional designer’s goal must be to have a high level of active participation as the videodisc medium allows for reactive, coactive and proactive design principles to be integrated into the same courseware to best accomplish the objectives of the programme. Users choosing their own avenues of learning will be able to explore the flexibility of this new technology and individualize the learning to meet their own needs.
Videodisc Technology in the Classroom
Education can be imparted exploring the use of videodisc technology in classroom teaching online. The most popular subjects are-Art, Computer Science, Business, Economics, Early childhood Education, Geography, Guidance, History, Language, Mathematics, Physics and Science in which the videodiscs are found very effective (Philipa 1988). Educationists commonly classify videodiscs usage into one of three types depending on the level of interactivity and control and availability to the user (DeVore 1990).
Classroom uses of videodisc: Char and Talley ( 1986) have suggested fol lowing models for classroom use of videodiscs –
Teacher’s Presentation or Guided Discussion
In this model, the teacher displays images on a videodisc system in much the same way as showing a set of slides or overheads. The visual materials introduce a topic, or supplement other materials. With the teacher as presentation leader, students can be directed to draw comparisons or make inferences, using the visual material. When the teacher is not present, student discussions tend to centre around the pictures displayed.
In the activity stimulus model, visual material on the disc serves as a jumping-off point for- some non-disc activity within the classroom.
In this model, a computer and software accompany the videodisc, provides visuals for computer-driven simulations or problem solving. Students typically use the system alone or I n small groups.
A visual database model lets students use the disc as information resource for their own personal inquiry. This means the student needs a good, usable index and textual identification of visual images. Both the materials and the indexing tool must be suited to the abilities of the students’ grade level.
In this model, the videodisc provides a visual accompaniment to student’s reports and presentations.
In nutshell, videodisc is a useable resource because the user or teacher can select specific images and motion sequences from a comprehensive body of information to produce his/her own teaching materials. If the teacher provides specific goals and guidance, the student can research a visual database to achieve the learning objectives (discovery learning). A more structured approach uses the computer to present information, elicit responses from the learner and provide feedback. Diagnostic questions monitor the progress and direct the student to the most appropriate online learning experiences for his needs. Like other new technologies instructional videodisc will benefit by more research in the area of desired usage and expected results.