ICT Education Edusat And teacher training : Teaching Online

ICT Education Edusat And teacher training, ICT Education, teacher training, teaching online, information  and communication  technology, satellite, ict

ICT Education Edusat And teacher training :

Teaching Online

India’s  performance  is amazing in  the  areas of information  and communication  technology,  nuclear  technology,  space  science, industrial production, agriculture, farming, etc. but still India has to solve its

Problems of illiteracy, poverty, population, quality education, unemployment, regional variations i n growth and development. Since independence, the country has successfully developed ‘one of the largest education system in the world and has made impressive progress in respect of number of schools and enrolment at different levels of education which has enhanced enormously as shown in Tables I and 2 respectively. But, significantly high dropout rate, sharp bias in male-female and rural-urban l literacy as well as schooling are the serious challenges before the country.

Since the convergence and diversity of educational opportunities still suffer from severe deficiencies, the gap in literacy and schooling (enrolment) is yet present in significant proportion. To fulfill the constitutional commitment of I 00% enrolment and provide free and compulsory education up to the age of 14 years and to reduce the higher dropout rate in primary (39.7%), upper primary (54.6%) and high school (66%) levels urgently needs a the specially designed educational and pedagogical model.

The arrival of computer and later the internet in 90’s opened a much wider horizon. In its short existence, the web has proven itself a worthy tool for education. A new model has emerged that combines in different ways, all means of electronic communication and computer, to provide a wide array of delivery options and new pedagogical alternatives to all levels (primary to higher), types (general, technical, professional, vocation) and systems (conventional/distance)  of education.

Nearly a year after the launch of Edusat, the world’s first dedicated education satellite by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization), virtual classrooms have become a reality in the country. President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam inaugurated the country’s first phase of Edusat’s operation on July 25, 2005 by connecting 15teacher training centers and 50 government schools through satellite in Kerala.

What is Edusat ?

Edusat is a collaborative project of ISRO, MHRD, Govt. of India and IGNOU. It is the first Indian satellite built exclusively for serving the educational sector. It is mainly intended to meet the demand for an interactive satellite based distance education system Direct to Home quality broadcast for the country.

The satellite has multiple regional beams covering different parts of India – five Ku-band transponders with spot beams covering northern, north-eastern, eastern, southern and western regions of the country, a Ku-band transponder with its footprint covering the Indian mainland region and six C-band transponders with their footprints covering the entire country. The satellite utilizes an antenna with a 1.2-metre reflector to direct the KU-band spot beams towards their intended regions. This enables information to be broadcast in all the 18 officials languages of India. Thus, educational programmes can be viewed on any television set installed in schools, homes or community halls through a simple low-cost receiver costing about $65 (about Rs. 3,250).

This confirms India’s commitment to use space technology for nation development, especially for the development of the people in remote and rural  locations.  Satellites can establish connectivity between urban educational  institutions and a large number of rural and semi-urban educational institutions to provide an educational infrastructure. Thus, in spite of limited trained and skilled teachers, the aspirations of the growing student population at all levels can be met through the concept of tele­ education.

Teacher Training:  Present Scenario

There has been a phenomenal growth of teaching profession in India since independence. Even then the student teacher ratio in 2001-02 was 1: 4J, I : 34 and I :34 at primary, upper primary and higher secondary levels and the percentage of women teachers working at aforesaid levels was 37.1%, 37.3% and 34.9% respectively (MHRD, Govt. of India Report, 2002-03). Although the number of female teachers has increased yet their share in total teaching force is small, particularly in rural, remote and educationally backward  areas.

National Policy on Education – 1986, recommended a fully qualified primary teacher but even after 21 years, about 0.24 million teachers  in primary schools are under qualified.   The NPE – 1986 and also revised  POA – 1992, placed significant emphasis on pre-induction training as well as in­ service  continuing  education  of  teachers.    Over  the  years,  India  has developed  a multi-tier  infrastructure  for teacher education.   At national level, National  Council for Education, Research and Training (NCERT) was established in 1961. State Council for Education, Research and Training (SCERTs)   were set up in 20 states and SIE (State Institutes of Education) in 9 other States as the State counterpart of the NCERT to provide direction and leadership to reform school education.  Later in August 1995, National Council Teacher Education (NCTE), to plan and coordinate development of teacher education, was set up.   451 DIETs (District Institute of Teacher Education) have been established/upgraded  to provide quality training to primary  school pre-service/in-service  teachers.   76 Colleges of Teacher Education  (CTEs) and  39 Institutes  of Advanced  Studies in  Education (IASEs) have also been set up throughout the country till 2003, to facilitate in-service and pre-service training of secondary level teachers and teacher educators of DIETs under teaching online education scheme of MHRD, Govt. of India.    Wherein  all  about  3,000 teacher  education  departments  in  the universities/government and private degree/ P.G colleges, provide pre-service teacher training.  To update and upgrade the content and skills for quality improvement  of technical  teachers,  there are four National  Institute for Technical Teachers Training and Research (NITTTR), established in East, West, South and North parts of the country at Calcutta, Bhopal, Madras and Chandigarh, respectively.

Satellite Technology in Education

Television entered in India on September 15, 1959 as a pilot project funded by Ford Foundation, with the transmission of one hour educational programmers twice a week. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE, 1975) is an example of extensive application of Satellite for “Education and Development”. After launching our own satellites, the Indian National Satellite (INSAT) series, INSAT 1A (April 10, 1982) to INSAT 3A (April 10, 2003) it had become possible to reach remotest and far flung areas of the country and expanded its capabilities to provide enhanced services in the fields of telecommunication, broadcasting, education, extension education, etc. India continues to forge ahead in its space programme and providing to benefit the country (Kasturirangan — 2003).

There is a growing demand for an inte1active satellite based education system in the country. The launch of Edusat which is exclusively dedicated to education, provides a fresh perspective ways to educational reforms, in which new technologies contribute to equalize the access to learning opportunities and to improve the quality of education for all. The synergies and externalities which ICT brings to education and society, while applicable to all States throughout the Nation, will acquire a larger dimension and have full potential to reach the unreached.

The digital divide as a catch phrase denotes the growing rift between nations and societies, even as ICT is making the world more connected and global. The question is who is connected -to whom and for what? It is our task as teacher educators to make sure that every one becomes a part of a global learning community – one that will defuse the knowledge and instill the values that are crucial to our survival and well being.

Edusat:  Its Present Status and Teacher Training

Presently, teacher educators/teachers are working in isolation. With the launch of Edusat, world’s largest teacher education system can be created through Networks so that institutions can be linked synchronously (chat, discussion group) in real time as well as asynchronously (e-mail) at any time. No matter, i n which part of the country we are, it is possible for us to be linked with the global communication network. Communication technology has done wonderful job in Entertainment, Railways, Airlines, Business and Mar to use lCT in education and training. Teacher educators have to assume responsibilities for using ICT in education and teacher-training effectively. A paradigm shift would be needed in our teaching-learning approach which so far relies on the learning material in printed form.

The teacher will now use more powerful but less expensive multi-media for enhancing learning by customizing it to suit the needs of individual learner. It is needed to visualize how about 3000 teacher education institutions would be networked? How 25000 teacher educators would be made computer literate and how these 25000 teacher educators would reach out to about

5.5 million in-service teachers (Elementary 3.34 million, secondary 1.78 million and Tertiary about 0.42 million). To achieve this, following will be required:

  • Facilitate Edusat Technology to all teacher training institutions;
  • Networking of teacher education institutions;
  • To train more than 5 million teachers in modem ICT for effective classroom delivery.

So far in our country, the ICT has been largely used by entertainment and business/ commerce industry. About 200 thousand new teachers in the country are being produced every year by the 3000 teacher education departments/institutions. The challenge is to produce such teachers who can handle the ICT effectively and capable to use it in developing teaching online­ learning material, access information from the internet, use digital library, customize lessons by consulting world library available on web. Create a forum for chat for like minded people to interact with each other in real time. Once internet facility is provided to all the teacher education institutions, the educators would be able to hold on-line conference in real time, can chat and take part in discussion forum, news groups, contact each other through e-mail, etc.

NCTE should provide server support and training should be provided to teacher-educators of all the 3000 teacher training institutions of the country by IASEs and DIETs. Initially the training kit can be developed by !CT professionals to train master trainers to develop instructional material who will train about 25000 teacher educators. Consequently these teacher educators will train all the school teachers to use the ICT and internet in classroom teaching.

At present ‘Gyan Darshan’ signals come on extended C-band, which requires a large (3 meter radi us) parabodiadal dish. In India two-way audio and one-way video interactivity are going on since February 1995 through Training in Development Communication (TDC) Channel on INSAT throughout the country. The Edusat, a satellite exclusively for education, was launched by the Indigenous Geo Synchronous Launch Vehicle (GSLV)-GSAT-3 on September 21,2004, with the capacity of providing 6 channel C-band beams, 5-Ku-band regional beams, one national beam in Ku band and one national band in extended channel. Each beam is capable to provide bandwidth equivalent to I 0 digital TV channels. Only 1.2 meter dish antenna will be required for receiving the signals and we can reach down to block level.

ICT Education Edusat And teacher training, ICT Education, teacher training, teaching online, information  and communication  technology, satellite, ict

Edusat has 72 channels, out of which 56 channels are dedicated to formal education. It will offer literacy, syllabus based education, training and enrichment, through regional languages. These will cover all sectors of education (primary to higher, professional/ technical etc.), in all regional languages and will reach to al l students – normal/ disadvantaged/women/ tribal/disabled. Another  16 channels will cover programmes related to education of old aged, youth, women, science & technology, culture & heritage, health, literacy, Indian languages, etc.

Through 1 .2 meter dish antenna with a telephone and computer, we can disseminate education to the remote arts, to strengthen distance education efforts and provide effective training to pre-service and in-service teachers . It can be used to supplement curriculum based teaching, access to experts and share the quality resources. We have to reach 3.34 elementary, 1.78 million secondary teachers located in 5564 blocks of 593 districts of the country through the KU-Band  satellite.

Edusat Launched with Targets

On the 21st September, 2004 the Indian Space Research Organization (!SRO) successfully launched a rocket into space carrying a 1950 kg satellite dedicated to the cause of education, ‘Edusat’. The rocket was launched from the country’s only spaceport at Sriharikota and placed its payload on a designated orbit, 5000 kmaway minutes later. It is a collaborative project of !SRO, IGNOU and MHRD, Govt. of India.

The universalisation of education is a top priority for the government all these years. But some 35% of India’s billion-plus population is illiterate. Kerala became the first state to launch virtual classes through Edusat in elementary education. Besides supporting formal education, a satellite system can facilitate the dissemination of knowledge to the rural and remote population about important aspects like health, hygiene and personality development t and allow professionals to update their knowledge base as well. New Edusat is expected to have life of seven years in space, during which among other things, it will help educational institutions to provide quality education make up the dearth of good teachers by providing connectivity with classrooms far away and Till July 2005, 17 state governments had sent their proposals to the central government requesting setting up of Edusat Networks for Elementary Education in their states.

According to ISRO officials, the Edusat project has to be realised in three phases.

Under this project in the first phase; the Visveswaraiah Technological University in Karnataka has already become the main beneficiary and has networked all engineering colleges of the University with I 00 nodes. Y B Chavan State Open University at Nashi k, Maharashtra and the Rajiv Gandhi Technical University in Madhya Pradesh are also covered under the pilot project.

In the second phase, the Edusat spacecraft is being used in semi­ operational mode with at !east one uplink in each of the five spot beams. About I 00 to 200 classrooms are connected by each beam. In addition to Karnataka, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh coverage is proposed to be extended to two more states and one national institution.

In the third phase, Edusat national network would become fully operational.

These views were expressed by ISRO officers in July 2005 but even after 2 years, this target could not be achieved. However, recently, in September 2007 a collaboration has been established between Indra Gandhi Open National University, New Delhi and

ISRO to deliver interactive programmes (two way audio – one way video) through Edusat ( Times of India); as the expected life of Edusat is only 7 years in space.

Technical Possibilities of Using Edusat

The programme can be downloaded directly in computer server, arrange on-line education through internet, create audio interactivity using telephone as the return link, delivery of video lessons, etc. All this can be arranged using state hub of each state and studios established in Universities/SIET/ Doordarshan Kendras, etc. with an uplink facility to satellite.  Education/training Programmes will be developed and then will be beamed in local languages. This dream will be as real as we are looking the entertainment and other programmes and news in all state languages.

The launch of Edusat enabled integration of radio and television broadcast, internet based education, data casting, talk-back option, audio-video interaction, voice chat on internet and video conferencing. The main objective of Edusat is to use it for a variety of educational services e.g. teachers’ training, curriculum based teaching, enabling community participation and monitoring, providing access to resource persons for higher education. In brief, EduSat will spread over quality education to every corner of the country.

Use of Edusat in Teacher Training Programme


  • To familiarize teachers/ educators with modern ICT, their use and significance in teaching and learning;
  • To develop the instructional design relevant and compatible to satellite based education;
  • To train teacher educators in content development, organisation and software design so that they may provide in-service training to educational planners and personnel involved in curriculum development and content enrichment;
  • To encourage teachers and students in developing collaborative projects;
  • To enhance professional skills among teachers to teach school subjects using interactive radio/video programmes, computer assisted instruction (use of Multi-media), as well as CD’s and print media;
  • To create pedagogically sound programming in areas that do not have the ability to use these technologies till date;
  • To develop the skills using technology with diverse approaches – ranging from the traditional teaching methods to more sophisticated collaborative techniques;
  • To assess the use of ICT mediated interventions -e.g. interactive radio and video instructions for teachers and students and pilot other technologies for activity based learning through links with computer mediated learning systems;
  • To introduce new models combining in different ways, the means of electronic communications and the computer, to provide a wide array of delivery options and new pedagogical alternatives for school, college and university levels;
  • To train teacher educators use “Education Digital Video Library”. The new content will increase and enrich the existing resources and their utilities. The digital library categorizes, digitizes, stores and distributes videos and multi-media materials. It allows for on­ line search and delivers video-on-demand to schools through satellite TV not only for consultation but for creating new content;
  • To provide easy access to resource persons and possibility of frequent interaction;
  • The trained teacher educators will take care of in-service and pre­ service teachers. For later segment of teachers, modular system may be adopted;
  • Taking education to all parts of the country and encouraging greater community participation and monitoring.

On February. 17, 2006 according to Internet & Mobile Association of India (IAMAI), Indians go online for a number of activities including e-mail & IM (98%); job search (51%); banking (32%); bill payment (18%); stock trading ( 15%) and matrimonial search ( I 5%). The low cost broadband has helped in enhancing the Internet usage.

ICT in Education and Change of Paradigm

(i).   The pedagogical potential of ICT has been enormously expanded in recent years. The renewal of the educational process will take place gradually.

(ii). ICT offers solutions in terms of access, quality and diversified opportunities of education even at the remotest parts of the country.

(iii). A new educational paradigm based on intensive use of ICT has begun to take shape and radically transforming the teaching-learning process, school practices and educational  institutions themselves.

(iv) The innovations in the field of ICT are taking place very rapidly but changes in pedagogical practices and mind-set of teachers is at a much slower pace. To bridge this gap Edusat is launched on September 21,2004.lt supports to following technologies-

  • Broadcast Radio and T.V.
  • Interactive Radio and T.V.
  • Video conferencing
  • Computer communication and conference, and
  • Web-based education

Models to Train Teachers/Educators

Following models can be used to train teachers/educators to familiarize with ICT and to handle it effectively in the classroom:

  • Using National Educational Visual Library: In the Edusat project, National Educational Visual Library provides to teachers and learners through data casting, the required audio-visual materials in categorized form. Here, the synergies, in tens of both technology and content, come to full fruition. Thus, organizing information and resources to make them pertinent to teaching-learning process and combining different applications is an Encyclopedia. The hyper-texts are windows, through which the learners are able to access encyclopedias, illustrations, videos, mailing list and discussion fore. This is a friendly way for teachers and students to understand the possibilities of technology, internet and the new virtual environments. It encourages content creation, incorporating regional and local contributions. As a natural spin-off, it complements and expands-on, the information available through School Net.

In the above discussed model, when a teacher requests a video, it is delivered to the school, through data-casting satellite technology, which enables web pages and digitized videos to be sent directly to the school’s server, where it is stored for later use. Through this technology, it is also possible to deliver internet content to small rural communities without telephone lines.

Thus, it is not merely a matter to train teachers/educators to provide more efficient and flexible mechanisms  of delivery (that can reach people anywhere, anytime) and transforming existing content into new formats. ICT poses a challenge to transform education -the learning paradigm: the ability to think critically and build solutions to actual problems. Teacher has to bear this responsibility too.

  • Telesecundaria and Red Escolar (Edusat) Project: We may use experiences of Mexico Telesecundaria and Red EscoJar Projects, they are providing successfully quality education programmes to students of poor communities located at thinly scattered remote areas with the help of ICT.

Telesecundaria started in Mexico since 1968, TV assisted, tutor-driven middle school service directed education to children upto 14years in villages/ remote areas, with fewer than 2500 inhabitants. In order to cover VII, VIII and IX grades, the school receive daily 15 minutes TV programme for every subject throughout the year.  The produced TV programmes are also upgrade on a regular basis. Its pedagogical model integrates audio-visual and printed materials, school attendance and one teacher-tutor per grade level. In Mexico Edusat Network Telesecundaria formally launched in 1995 using I 0 channels network education television for all levels. Similarly Red Escolar Project through Edusat Network was started in 1997. Red Escolar used computer based technology for basic education and emphasis was given on CD Roms and Internet. In a span of30 years, Telesecundaria experiment enhanced enrolment of children (upto 14 years) by 121 % and significantly improved the performance of rural children. Both the projects had accomplished equity to traditional system in terms of access, retention and equity.

  • Combining Satellite, TV and Internet: To make Edusat a useful and exciting tool for teachers and students, special attention needs to be given to teacher training in the didactical use of the technology. Edusat offers a valuable platform to provide best training and produce best teachers. Below an interesting example is given, that how these two platforms converge can create a beneficial

“A distinguished teacher gives live lecture via satellite on any topic/theme which is being analysed by the students on-line. Thus, a lecture on any topic on TV, creates learning circular on the web. In Mexico, many courses are being offered through collaborative projects on the web, complemented with TV programmes, (combining satellite TV and internet) are found equally effective to two-way video conferencing and also at a much cheaper cost.”

  • ” Bringing together Schoo/Net and Edusat Networks: To improve teaching and learning and to establish an integrated platform of application, the best model is bringing together both school Net and Edusat networks and applying a series of applications. In this model, the school has specifically equipped classrooms according to their specific requirements for teaching the different school subjects. Different pieces of technology can be used as per subject’s requirement e.g. in Mathematics (teacher and students) work with calculators, whereas in Physics with probes and simulators. Similarly, software applications and models of computer and internet use may vary depending on the specific objectives.

In off hours, the entire infrastructure can be used by students for doing their homework or for any research work they have to undertake as well as the poorer may be allowed to use this infrastructure to make them computer literature, use e-mail and the internet at almost zero marginal cost. This later aspect is more important as most people do not have a computer and internet connectivity.

  • ” On-Line Delivery through Website and Schoo/Net Resources: We need appropriate and sufficient pedagogical models in adult education and labor skill training. Besides, that the higher drop out rates in primary (39.7%), upper primary (54.6%) and high school (66%) levels need, specially designed educational model, “Education for real life” to cater the needs of these school leftouts. A TV assisted course, in which the adults (left outs) can work individually and then come together in groups with a tutor once a week. The field research conducted by the OECD’s Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) found that in the countries where there is no culture of self-learning the adults’ dropout quickly, however, the regular students consult with the tutor at his/her initiative. The first part of the finding is consistent with the findings of Shah & Khare (2003) and Shah(2007) revealed that there is a significantly low retention and pass out rate in IGNOU Programmes. It is not yet a web-based approach to learning but a web-site can be made available to assist both tutors and students, deliver material and use school Net’s resources. The entire course may be offered in an on-line format that lend to self-paced study. This is also a good example of how powerful and useful synergies can be?

As Edusat has an extraordinary potential in coverage and delivery it will become an important, efficient and diverse platform for content distribution. The schools, colleges and universities all over the country will participate in developing/producing/ using programmes that cover aide range of subjects as per need of the variety of audiences.


  • India is a country having people of multi-religions, multi-cultures and multi-languages along with a complex socio-economic geographical condition within a state and among states.
  • Many schools do not have rudimentary facilities like blackboards or furniture to sit on or a proper building and, therefore, as soon as any new scheme is launched, teachers begin to show their resistance and plead for bare minimum infrastructure.
  • There is a big digital divide between developed, developing and under developed countries as reflected in UNDP Report (1999) that while the 45 countries with higher Human Development index have 504 telephone lines, 595 TV sets, 204 personal computers and 34 internet hosts for every 1000 inhabitants. The 95 countries with Medium Development have 54, 182, 7 and 0.24 respectively, and the 35 Low Development nations only have 4 telephone lines and 36 television sets for the same number of inhabitants, and have not yet reached a significant proportion as far as computers and hosts are concerned. Situation is almost the same among different states and UTs of our country. Year after year this gap becoming wider, therefore, we have to come forward to minimize the digital divide among the states of our own country as well as between India and developed countries within first decade of this century.
  • The distribution of time among T.V., print media and internet is 16.51 hours, 8.02 hours and 7.29 hours respectively in a week, concludes that T.V. was the most prominent source of information in 200 l . It was observed that internet was also coming up with a much faster speed.
  • In July 2005, the population using Radio, TV, Newspaper and Internet for less than 5 hours was 47%, 24%, 32% and 15% respectively but internet users for 5-10 hours became 29%.ln 2006, the internet user population increased from 1.4 lakh in 1998 to 40.0 lakh. But in terms of proportionate of population penetration is enhanced only from 0.1% to3.6%.
  • In2006, total population of America was 13.6% while rest of world was 86.4% but in America, the internet user population was 38.4% much higher then rest of the world is 14.6% while internet user population is 38.4% and rest of the world (14.6%). In 2007,the status of Internet users in China (12.3%), Pakistan (7.5%), Bangladesh (0.3%) and India, (4.2%) shows that China is coming up with a much faster speed than India.
  • There are funding problems difficult to overcome in terms of equipment and connectivity costs which still carry high initial investments.
  • The start up cost of implementing Edusat is too high.

Efforts to Overcome Difficulties

To achieve the set targets enunciated in Xlth Five year Plan, need huge infrastructure, commitment, dedication and devotion of each individual of the country. Further,to generate finance I resources following efforts may be made for developing adequate infrastructure for the proper use of ICTs in classrooms:

  • In the most disadvantaged regions, the state/central governments, local bodies and private sector should come together to defray the cost of the equipment and connectivity whereas, in more affluent areas school-community may put up a larger share of these costs.
  • Government funding needs to be complemented by private sector contributions. Firms related to tele-communications -hardware, software, content production and engaged in Human Resource Development must be compelled to support actively’ for creating School Net and Network of School Nets under this educational Endeavour.
  • We must Endeavour to establish international programmes oriented to help national entities, set-up the infrastructure required, produce relevant content and services and train the human resources.
  • A lot can be earned through consultancy to those countries where enough adequately trained personnel are not available with the vision and expertise to install the system and get the process going in an effective way.
  • The new scenario created by globalization, the process of International collaborations have become a priority to reduce the digital inequalities between developed and developing, therefore, integrated efforts should be made with a determined commitment by the government organizations and university academics to receive the international support. The success of Edusat project will substantially hinge on educational software development, accuracy of the content and its authenticity and credibility. The content must be consistent with the syllabus prescribed by respective state/central education departments, universities, etc. Jayanti Ravi estimates that a full time channel for 48 hours will require 105 educational programmes related to areas -primary, secondary and higher secondary, tertiary and technical education, skill development., vocational guidance and bridge courses (providing informal education) for 48 hrs transmission in which 29 hrs transmission will be CD based (one way) and 19 hrs transmission will be interactive (two way communication) ( Times of India, February 2004). Therefore, to produce a high quality educational software in regional languages, there is an urgent need to upgrade and upscale the in-house programme production capabilities, to develop a network of specialist production agencies for outsourcing and lists of experts, programmers, technical specialists and institutions possess the necessary infrastructure and facilities .e.g. studio, computer lab., etc. i n the country. We have to create a mechanism for optimal utilization of existing infrastructure as well as of experts’ expertise and skills of teachers, media developers and programmers, etc.
  • Teacher is the main component of teaching onlinelearning process, education system and a backbone to society, therefore, he/she should be made aware about the use of ICT and source of knowledge and pedagogical aspects to teach the contents of the curriculum, developed with holistic approach to cover all the following three segments:

–  Regular Areas of Learning

  • Frontier Areas of Learning

  • Cultural Areas of Learning

Thus, in brief Edusat has to provide syllabus oriented programmes, in regional languages, in the classroom situation and in presence of teacher/instructor. No doubt, it will contribute significantly to close traditional learning gaps, reduce. the educational lag and consolidate a national system that offer quality services to all sectors of society. However, for this to occur, it is necessary to comply with a series of conditions and strategies based on the specific requirements, capability to reach massive audiences and offer equal quality of content to target groups with specialized needs. We must remember that technology is only a tool and we have to use it wisely, efficiently, economically and effectively.

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